This investigation examined the role of routines and activity structures as organizing features in middle school physical education. Six physical education specialists from one suburban middle school were observed during their first four lessons at the beginning of the year and during an additional lesson at midyear. Analysis revealed that routines and activity structures were well established by Day 4 and remained through midyear. Three categories of routines emerged: management, instructional support, and instructional exchange. Activity structures increased when formal instruction began, with four segments occurring during Days 1 and 2 and seven segments observed by Days 3 and 4. Although the types of routines used by these six teachers were similar, differences among teachers appeared to be related to how routines were presented, implemented, and enforced. A number of environmental features appeared to coerce utilization and implementation of routines.
Sandra A. Stroot and Judith L. Oslin
The purpose of this study was to (a) determine preservice teachers’ ability to use component-specific feedback to influence student performance on the overhand throw and (b) to develop an instrument to record teachers’ verbal behaviors concurrent with student performance. Preservice teachers used a force-production sequence of overhand throw components (Siedentop, Herkowitz, & Rink, 1984) to intervene upon sport-skill performance of elementary age children. Techniques for observing, recording, and accessing overhand throwing performance and the subsequent instructional statements of the preservice teachers were presented, using the sport skill process variable assessment instrument (SSPVA). Analyses of data suggested three major patterns of instructional feedback statements provided by preservice teachers: (a) Preservice teachers often provided feedback on a component that had been consistently demonstrated at a high level of efficiency; (b) some components were not demonstrated at consistently high efficiency levels, yet little or no specific feedback was directed toward these components; and (c) when preservice teachers were able to recognize errors and provide appropriate feedback, change did occur.
Judith L. Oslin, Sandra Stroot and Daryl Siedentop
The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a component-specific instruction (CSI) intervention to enhance overarm throw development in preschool children. The study also examined the sequence of components within the intervention, a force production sequence (FPS) versus a forward-chaining sequence (FCS). During daily inspection of the data, investigators noted changes in efficiency levels of nontargeted components. Therefore, a third research question emerged regarding the ancillary effects of CSI on efficiency levels of nontargeted components. For all participants, intervention was required on two or more of the following: step, rotation/backswing, elbow/backswing, forearm/forward, and rotation forward. CSI was found to be effective for improving the efficiency of the targeted component as well as overall throwing efficiency. Ancillary effects occurred repeatedly across nontargeted components during all but one condition of CSI. During follow-up, the degree to which efficiency levels were maintained varied from child to child.
Judith L. Oslin, Stephen A. Mitchell and Linda L. Griffin
The purpose of this article is to report on the development and validation of the Game Performance Assessment Instrument (GPAI). The GPAI is a multidimensional system designed to measure game performance behaviors that demonstrate tactical understanding, as well as the player’s ability to solve tactical problems by selecting and applying appropriate skills. The GPAI provides analyses of individual game performance components (e.g., decisions made, skill execution, and support) and/or overall performance (e.g., game involvement and game performance). The individual game performance components were developed and evaluated by experts to determine validity and reliability. The GPAI protocol was field tested across three categories of games: invasion (soccer and basketball), net/wall (volleyball), and field/run/score (softball). Validity and reliability were examined through three separate studies using middle school physical education specialists and their sixth-grade classes. Findings suggest that the GPAI provides a valid and reliable method for assessing game performance.