Participation in physical activity has been shown to improve components of psychological well-being (i.e., affect). Programs such as the Warrior Games have been designed to promote physical activity in wounded military personnel. However, sport competition typically yields a winner and a loser (i.e., game outcome). The experience of a win or a loss may affect how wounded athletes respond to game outcome. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the affective changes (positive affect, negative affect, tranquility, and fatigue) according to game outcome in a sample of wounded military wheelchair basketball players participating in a weekend tournament. The results indicated that the participants who experienced a win reported significantly higher positive affect and tranquility and significantly lower negative affect than those experiencing a loss. These findings have important implications for wounded veteran athletes, as well as coaches and administrative personnel.
Paul E. Yeatts, Ronald Davis, Jun Oh and Gwang-Yon Hwang
Jun-Seok Kim, Moon-Hwan Kim, Duk-Hyun Ahn and Jae-Seop Oh
Context: A winged scapula (WS) is associated with faulty posture caused by weakness of the serratus anterior (SA), which mainly acts as a scapular stabilizer muscle. It is important to accurately assess and train the SA muscle with a focus on scapula stabilizers during musculoskeletal rehabilitation of individuals with a WS. Objective: The authors examined muscle activity in the SA and pectoralis major (PM), upper trapezius (UT), and anterior deltoid (AD) as well as shoulder protraction strength during isometric shoulder protraction in individuals with and without a WS. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A clinical biomechanics laboratory. Participants: In total, 27 males with no shoulder, neck, or upper-extremity pain participated. Main Outcome Measures: Isometric shoulder protraction strength was collected and surface electromyography used to measure the activity of the SA, PM, UT, and AD muscles and selective SA activity ratio to other shoulder muscles. Results: Electromyography activity of the SA muscle and shoulder protraction strength were significantly lower in individuals with a WS compared with the non-WS group (P < .05). In contrast, PM muscle activity and the PM-to-SA, UT-to-SA, and AD-to-SA ratios were significantly greater in individuals with a WS than in individuals without winging (P < .05). Conclusions: Isometric shoulder protraction for measuring SA strength in individuals with a WS should focus on isolated muscle activity of the SA, and SA strengthening exercises are important for individuals with a WS.