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Jung Eun Lee, David F. Stodden and Zan Gao


Few studies have examined young children’s leisure- and school-based energy expenditure (EE) and moderateto-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The purpose of this study was to explore children’s estimated EE rates and time spent in MVPA in 3 time segments: at-school, after-school, and weekends.


A total of 187 second and third grade children from 2 elementary schools participated in the study. Accelerometers were used to assess children’s 5-day EE and MVPA. Multiple 2 (Grade) × 2 (Gender) ANOVAs with repeated measures (Time) were conducted to examine the differences in the outcome variables.


Significant time effects on EE and MVPA were revealed. Children’s EE rate and minutes in MVPA per day were higher during after school and weekends than at school.


Although children were more active outside of school, their MVPA during weekdays and weekends still fell far short of the recommended level of 60 minutes/day.

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Peng Zhang, Jung Eun Lee, David F. Stodden and Zan Gao

Background: The objective was to examine changes of children’s time spent in sedentary, light physical activity, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and estimated energy expenditure (EE) rates during weekdays and weekends across 3 years. Methods: An initial sample of 261 children’s (mean age = 7.81 y) 5-day physical activity and EE were assessed annually via accelerometry across 3 years using repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance. The outcome variables were time spent in sedentary, light physical activity, MVPA, and kilocalories per day for weekdays and weekends. Results: A significant decrease in MVPA and EE occurred during weekdays across the 3 years (P = .01). Only the second-year data demonstrated an increase (+2.49 min) in weekend MVPA (P = .04). Children’s sedentary time during weekdays increased significantly in years 1 and 2 (P = .01), yet significantly decreased in the third year (−44.31 min). Children’s sedentary time during weekends significantly decreased in the first year (−27.31 min), but increased in the following 2 years (P = .01). Children’s light physical activity demonstrated a statistically significant increase in year 2 (+3.75 min) during weekdays (P = .05). Conclusions: Children’s MVPA and EE generally declined during weekdays but were maintained during weekends across a 3-year time span. Children may benefit most from weekday intervention strategies.

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Hyo Jung Yoon, Sang Ah Lee, Young Jun Ju, Jin Young Nam and Eun-Cheol Park

Background: Intergenerational transmission, which refers to the similarity between parent and their children, is a possible explanation of adolescent physical activity (PA). However, only a few existing studies explore the relationship of parent–adolescent PA in East Asian countries. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association of parent–adolescent PA using a nationally representative data in Korea with a large sample size. Methods: Data were collected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted from 2010 to 2014. The authors performed a linear mixed effects regression analysis with 1342 cases after using log conversion of parent and adolescent moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) levels. Results: In the study, the median MVPA of adolescents was 150 (interquartile range: 360) minutes per week. Adolescent MVPA levels were significantly correlated with their mother’s MVPA (β = 0.055, P = .02). Similar findings of greater association in girls and younger adolescents (age: 13–15 y) were found in subgroup analysis (girls: β = 0.073, P = .05; younger adolescents: β = 0.103, P = .001). Conclusion: Increasing maternal PA levels could stimulate their adolescent’s PA levels. Therefore, intervention at the family level may lead to an increase in adolescent PA levels.

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Jung-Woo Oh, JungJun Lim, Sang-Hwa Lee, Yu-sun Jin, Bumjo Oh, Chung Gun Lee, Deok Hwan Lee, Eun-Young Lee, Han Joo Lee, Hyon Park, Hyun Joo Kang, Justin Y. Jeon, Mi-Seong Yu, Sang-Hoon Suh, SeJung Park, So Jung Lee, Soo Jung Park, Wook Song, Yewon Yu, Yoonkyung Song, Youngwon Kim and Yeon Soo Kim