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Validation of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children in Children of Different Races

Justin B. Moore, John C. Hanes Jr., Paule Barbeau, Bernard Gutin, Roberto P. Treviño, and Zenong Yin

The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) is a validated self-report measure of physical activity widely used to assess physical activity in children (8-14 years of age). To date, however, the instrument has been validated in largely White Canadian samples. The purpose of the present article is to determine the psychometric properties of the PAQ-C for African American, European American, and Hispanic children. Two studies were conducted in which independent samples were administered the PAQ-C, along with varying indices of cardiovascular fitness, fatness, and psychological measures related to physical activity. Results showed that the reliability and validity of the PAQ-C varied by race and that modifications might be necessary.

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Cardiovascular Fitness Moderates the Relations Between Estimates of Obesity and Physical Self-Perceptions in Rural Elementary School Students

Nathanael G. Mitchell, Justin B. Moore, Wendy S. Bibeau, and Kathleen M. Rudasill


Levels of physical activity decline throughout childhood. Children’s physical self-perceptions have been found to relate to their physical activity. Understanding the relationships among physical self-perceptions, obesity, and physical activity could have important implications for interventions in children.


The current study investigated the moderating effect of cardiovascular fitness (CVF, heart rate recovery from a 3-minute step test) on the relationship between obesity (BMI, waist circumference) and physical self-perceptions (athletic competence, physical appearance) in 104 fourth- and fifth-grade children from a small rural community.


Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that CVF moderated the relations between BMI and waist circumference on athletic competence. For children with lower fitness, higher waist circumference was associated with lower athletic competence, while for children with higher fitness levels, higher BMI was associated with higher athletic competence. Results also indicated that both BMI and waist circumference were negatively related to physical appearance. CVF moderated these relations such that only children with lower fitness, greater BMI and waist circumference was associated with poorer physical appearance scores.


Implications include the need for support of fitness programs to promote psychological well-being and to investigate the relationship between obesity and physical self-perceptions within the context of fitness.

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The Effects of Cryotherapy on Ground-Reaction Forces Produced during a Functional Task

Stephen J. Kinzey, Mitchell L. Cordova, Kevin J. Gallen, Jason C. Smith, and Justin B. Moore


To determine whether a standard 20-min ice-bath (10°C) immersion of the leg alters vertical ground-reaction-force components during a 1 -legged vertical jump.


A 1 × 5 factorial repeated-measures model was used.


The Applied Biomechanics Laboratory at The University of Mississippi.


Fifteen healthy and physically active subjects (age = 22.3 ± 2.1 years, height = 177.3 ± 12.2 cm, mass = 76.3 ± 19.1 kg) participated.


Subjects performed 25 one-legged vertical jumps with their preferred extremity before (5 jumps) and after (20 jumps) a 20-min cold whirlpool to the leg. The 25 jumps were reduced into 5 sets of average trials.

Main Outcome Measures:

Normalized peak and average vertical ground-reaction forces, as well as vertical impulse obtained using an instrumented force platform.


Immediately after cryotherapy (sets 2 and 3), vertical impulse decreased (P = .01); peak vertical ground-reaction force increased (set 2) but then decreased toward baseline measures (P= .02). Average vertical ground-reaction force remained unchanged (P >.05).


The authors advocate waiting approximately 15 min before engaging in activities that require the production of weight-bearing explosive strength or power.

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Physical Activity in After-School Programs: Comparison With Physical Activity Policies

Michael W. Beets, Rohan Shah, Robert Glenn Weaver, Jennifer Huberty, Aaron Beighle, and Justin B. Moore


After-school programs (ASPs) across the nation have been asked to increase the amount of activity children accumulate during such programs. Policies/standards that benchmark the amount of total activity (light-to-vigorous physical activity, LVPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) accumulated in an ASP have been developed. Little is known about the prevalence of children meeting these goals.


Children (N = 812, 6 to 12 y old) attending 19 ASPs wore accelerometers for 4 days while attending an ASP. LVPA and MVPA were dichotomized according to existing ASP policies/standards. Data on whether a policy/standard was met were compared between gender, age, BMI, race/ethnicity, and ASP-type (faith-, school-, community-based) using mixed-model logistic-regression.


The prevalence of meeting an LVPA policy/standard ranged from 75.4% (National Afterschool Association [NAA], 20% of program time spent in LVPA) to 97.8% (NAA, 20% of time in attendance spent in LVPA), and meeting an MVPA policy/standard ranged from 0.3% (California, 60 min MVPA/d) to 26.9% (North Carolina, 20% of attendance spent in MVPA). Boys, younger children, nonwhites, and children attending faithor community-based ASPs were more likely to meet any policy/standard.


Current practice in ASPs is sufficient to meet LVPA policies/standards but insufficient to meet MVPA policy/standards. Efforts must be directed toward identifying the most appropriate policy/standard and strategies to meet it.

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Day of the Week is Associated With Meeting Physical Activity Recommendations and Engaging in Excessive Sedentary Time in Youth

Justin B. Moore, Michael W. Beets, Sara F. Morris, and Mary Bea Kolbe


Most youth fail to achieve 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily while engaging in excessive amounts of sedentary behaviors. The objective of this investigation was to identify modifiable factors associated with meeting MVPA recommendations or engaging in greater than 55% of observed time sedentary.


Youth (N = 1005, 10.5 yrs, 52% girls) wore accelerometers with daily minutes of MVPA (≥ 2296 counts·min−1) classified as ≥ 60mins/d vs. < 60min/d of MVPA. Sedentary behavior (< 100 counts·min−1) was classified as < 55% or ≥ 55% of total wear-time. Two-level random effects logit survival models for repeated events (days of monitoring) examined the association of psychosocial self-report measures and demographic characteristics to meeting the MVPA recommendation and spending ≥ 55% of time sedentary.


Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Sundays were associated with a decreased likelihood of meeting MVPA recommendations relative to Mondays. Wednesday thru Sunday were associated with a decreased likelihood of spending ≥ 55% of time sedentary. Being a boy, receiving transportation, and fewer reported barriers to physical activity were associated with meeting MVPA recommendations.


Relatively few youth are engaging in recommended levels of physical activity. Provision of transportation and reduction of barriers to physical activity are relevant targets for physical activity promotion.

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Obesity Is Inversely Associated With Natural Amenities and Recreation Facilities Per Capita

Stephanie B. Jilcott Pitts, Michael B. Edwards, Justin B. Moore, Kindal A. Shores, Katrina Drowatzky DuBose, and David McGranahan


Little is known about the associations between natural amenities, recreation facility density, and obesity, at a national level. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to examine associations between county-level natural amenities, density of recreation facilities, and obesity prevalence among United States counties.


Data were obtained from a compilation of sources within the United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service Food Environment Atlas. Independent variables of interest were the natural amenities scale and recreation facilities per capita. The dependent variable was county-level obesity prevalence. Potential covariates included a measure of county-level percent Black residents, percent Hispanic residents, median age, and median household income. All models were stratified by population loss, persistent poverty, and metro status. Multilevel linear regression models were used to examine the association between obesity and natural amenities and recreation facilities, with “state” as a random effects second level variable.


There were statistically significant negative associations between percent obesity and 1) natural amenities and 2) recreation facilities per capita.


Future research should examine environmental and policy changes to increase recreation facilities and enhance accessible natural amenities to decrease obesity rates.

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Psychosocial Characteristics, Perceived Neighborhood Environment, and Physical Activity Among Chinese Adolescents

Xinge Zhang, Sangho Jee, Jialin Fu, Bowen Wang, Luyang Zhu, Yiming Tu, Lei Cheng, Gaotian Liu, Rui Li, and Justin B. Moore

This study examined the independent associations between psychosocial factors, perceived neighborhood characteristics, and physical activity (PA) in Chinese adolescents. A cross-sectional study using a convenience sample was conducted in fall 2019 at a high school in Wuhan, China. Sociodemographic data, body weight, height, psychosocial factors, perceptions of neighborhood environment, and PA were collected using questionnaires. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed in 4 steps, where step 1 included demographic covariates, step 2 added psychosocial factors into the model, step 3 added perceived neighborhood environmental factors, and step 4 added interaction terms between significant psychosocial and environmental factors. A total of 4027 adolescents were included in analysis. The results of the third model indicated that friends’ support (b = 4.58), friends’ norms (b = 7.16), barriers to PA (b = −10.19), autonomous motivation (b = 4.75), self-efficacy (b = 8.86), the presence of shops/stores nearby (b = 5.79), and the availability of PA resources (b = 6.02) were significant predictors (P < .05) of moderate to vigorous PA. None of the interaction terms were significant in the fourth model. Our results suggest that interventions targeting the PA of Chinese adolescents should take into account the attitudes toward PA, perceived barriers to PA, controlled motivation, perceptions of neighborhood PA resource availability, and perceived neighborhood safety to maximize effectiveness.

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Structure of Physical Activity Opportunities Contribution to Children’s Physical Activity Levels in After-School Programs

Jessica L. Chandler, Keith Brazendale, Clemens Drenowatz, Justin B. Moore, Xuemei Sui, Robert G. Weaver, and Michael W. Beets

Background: The primary purpose of this study was to determine which physical activity (PA) opportunity elicits the most moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) in after-school programs. This study used a 3-group cross-over design in which participants were exposed to 3 variations of activity structures: free play, organized, or a mixture. Methods: PA was measured using ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers. All data were transformed into percentage of time spent sedentary or in MVPA. Repeated-measures mixed-effects models were used to examine differences in MVPA and sedentary among the 3 activity sessions. Participants included 197 unique children, aged 5–12 years, and were 53% male and 55% white. Results: Statistically significant differences were observed in the percentage of time boys spent in MVPA during free play and mixed compared with organized only sessions (35.8% and 34.8% vs 29.4%). No significant difference was observed in the percentage of time girls spent in MVPA during free play compared with organized or mixed (27.2% and 26.1% vs 26.1%). Both boys and girls experienced ∼10% less time sedentary during free play compared with the others. Conclusion: Offering free play during PA opportunities can help children attain as much if not more MVPA compared with only offering organized, adult-led games.

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Unseating the Sedentary Threat: A Vital Strategy for Curbing Cardiovascular Disease in Young Adults

Robert J. Kowalsky, Gregory J. Grosicki, Marco Meucci, Erik D. Hanson, Justin B. Moore, and Lee Stoner

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Characterization of Head Acceleration Exposure During Youth Football Practice Drills

Ty D. Holcomb, Madison E. Marks, N. Stewart Pritchard, Logan Miller, Mark A. Espeland, Christopher M. Miles, Justin B. Moore, Kristie L. Foley, Joel D. Stitzel, and Jillian E. Urban

Many head acceleration events (HAEs) observed in youth football emanate from a practice environment. This study aimed to evaluate HAEs in youth football practice drills using a mouthpiece-based sensor, differentiating between inertial and direct HAEs. Head acceleration data were collected from athletes participating on 2 youth football teams (ages 11–13 y) using an instrumented mouthpiece-based sensor during all practice sessions in a single season. Video was recorded and analyzed to verify and assign HAEs to specific practice drill characteristics, including drill intensity, drill classification, and drill type. HAEs were quantified in terms of HAEs per athlete per minute and peak linear and rotational acceleration and rotational velocity. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the differences in kinematics, and generalized linear models were used to assess differences in HAE frequency between drill categories. A total of 3237 HAEs were verified and evaluated from 29 football athletes enrolled in this study. Head kinematics varied significantly between drill categorizations. HAEs collected at higher intensities resulted in significantly greater kinematics than lower-intensity drills. The results of this study add to the growing body of evidence informing evidence-based strategies to reduce head impact exposure and concussion risk in youth football practices.