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Wesley J. Wilson, Justin A. Haegele, Steven K. Holland and K. Andrew R. Richards

Service-learning (SL) has become popular as part of the formal curriculum and as cocurricular experiences for college students. Some SL programs serve individuals with disabilities, but their influence on college volunteers is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to understand the experiences and perspectives of preprofessional college students who volunteered at a cocurricular, SL-based sports camp for youth with visual impairments. Participants included nine (five males and four females) preservice professionals who taught youth with visual impairments during the week-long sports camp. Data were collected using semistructured and conversational interviews, reflective journaling, and participatory observations. Four themes were constructed: (a) camp experience elicited a strong emotional response, (b) fostering professional growth and development, (c) doing too much and expecting too little, and (d) developing close bonds with the athletes. This study highlights the benefits of developing cocurricular SL programs for college students across a variety of fields.

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Davy Vancampfort, Justin Richards, Brendon Stubbs, Grace Akello, Caleb Ademola Gbiri, Philip B. Ward and Simon Rosenbaum

Background:

People with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are more likely than the general population to be physically inactive. The present review systematically evaluated correlates of physical activity across the socioecological model for people with PTSD.

Methods:

Two independent reviewers searched Embase, PubMed, PsycARTICLES, and CINAHL from inception until June 2015, combining the medical subject heading “posttraumatic stress disorder” or “PTSD,” with “physical activity” or “exercise.” Data were extracted by the same independent researchers and summarized according to the socioecological model.

Results:

Eight papers involving 1368 (994 men) participants (age range = 18–70 years) were eligible and enabled evaluation of 21 correlates. The only correlate (n ≥ 4) consistently associated with lower physical activity participation in people with PTSD was symptoms of hyperarousal. No consistent facilitators were identified.

Conclusions:

Hyperarousal symptoms are associated with lower physical activity participation among people with PTSD and should be considered in the design and delivery of individualized exercise programs targeting this population. The role of social, environmental, and policy factors on physical activity participation among people with PTSD is unknown and should be addressed by future research.

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Wesley J. Wilson, Steven K. Holland, Justin A. Haegele and K. Andrew R. Richards

Purpose: To better understand the workplace experiences of adapted physical education teachers with particular attention given to differences between those with and without Adapted Physical Education National Standards certification. Role socialization theory was used as the theoretical framework to explore how teachers navigate the contexts of their work environment. Methods: The participants included a total of 233 adapted physical education teachers, 131 with certification and 102 without it. The participants completed an online survey examining marginalization and isolation, perceived mattering, role stress, resilience, job satisfaction, perceived organizational support, and emotional exhaustion. Results: Certified adapted physical educators perceived less marginalization and role ambiguity and more perceived mattering than their noncertified counterparts. Discussion/Conclusion: These findings are consistent with other research suggesting the positive association between workplace experiences and advanced certifications. As the requirements for certification continue to advance and change, this study highlights the need for the continued study of advanced certification.

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Wesley J. Wilson, Steven K. Holland and Justin A. Haegele

Although much has been learned about the workplace experiences of physical education teachers, less is known about the unique experiences of adapted physical educators (APEs). Grounded in role socialization theory, the purpose of this study was to understand the relationships among perceived organizational support, resilience, perceived mattering, emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction in APEs. The participants included 237 APEs from the United States, who completed an online survey. The primary data analyses included confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The final structural model was a good fit for the data, χ2(199) = 327.25, p < .001, χ2/df = 1.64; root-mean-square error of approximation = .052 (90% confidence interval [.042, .062], p = .354); standardized root-mean-square residual = .050; nonnormed fit index = .959; comparative-fit index = .964. The results of this study highlight the importance of developing a workplace environment in which APEs feel supported in developing perceptions of matter, reducing emotional exhaustion, and improving job satisfaction.

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Lewis Keane, Emma Sherry, Nico Schulenkorf, Joel Negin, Ding Ding, Adrian Bauman, Edward Jegasothy and Justin Richards

Background: The purpose of this paper was to identify personal, social, and environmental mediators of recreational physical activity (PA) in a 6-month netball-based intervention for women and girls in Tonga. Methods: Tonga Netball’s “low-engagement village program” was implemented in 10 villages and aimed to increase the recreational PA levels in women and girls through a comprehensive, structured community-level netball program addressing key barriers to participation. In a mixed-methods approach, these mediating barriers were identified through qualitative interviews based on the socioecological model. Quantitative measures for mediators and recreational PA were then developed, and data from 301 women and girls were collected. Standard mediation analyses methods were then applied. Results: Program participation appeared to significantly increase PA levels. Statistically significant personal mediators were body issues, preferring competitions, and clothing. Social mediators were support from sports council, community leaders, friends, and church. Environmental mediators were travel time and access to balls, bibs, and umpires. Conclusion: A comprehensive community-level program addressing key participation barriers can increase recreational PA among women and girls in Tonga. Triangulating these results with mediation analyses of variables on the causal pathway can strengthen our understanding of causation and inform funding prioritization for critical program components in similar contexts.

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Erin K. Howie, Justin M. Guagliano, Karen Milton, Stewart A. Vella, Sjaan R. Gomersall, Tracy L. Kolbe-Alexander, Justin Richards and Russell R. Pate

Background: Sport has been identified as one of the 7 best investments for increasing physical activity levels across the life span. Several questions remain on how to effectively utilize youth sport as a strategy for increasing physical activity and improving health in youth. The purpose of this paper is to identify the main research priorities in the areas of youth sport and physical activity for health. Methods: An international expert panel was convened, selected to cover a wide spectrum of topics related to youth sport. The group developed a draft set of potential research priorities, and relevant research was scoped. Through an iterative process, the group reached consensus on the top 10 research priorities. Results: The 10 research priorities were identified related to sport participation rates, physical activity from sport, the contribution of sport to health, and the overall return on investment from youth sport. For each research priority, the current evidence is summarized, key research gaps are noted, and immediate research needs are suggested. Conclusion: The identified research priorities are intended to guide researchers, policymakers, and practitioners to increase the evidence base on which to base the design, delivery, and policies of youth sport programs to deliver health benefits.