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K. Andrew R. Richards and Kim C. Graber

Background/Purpose: Teacher educators must help students overcome faulty beliefs they developed through acculturation while also retaining highly qualified candidates through to graduation. This aspect of this study sought to understand physical education teacher education program coordinators’ perspectives about their role in the process of student retention. Method: Participants included physical education teacher education program coordinators who completed an online survey as detailed in Chapter 4. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, with attention to differences across Carnegie Classification. Results: There was relative alignment between the perceived effectiveness of recruitment strategies and the extent to which they were employed. There was also a preference for strategies that develop relationships among students. Limited differences were noted across Carnegie Classifications. Discussion/Conclusion: Physical education doctoral programs should prepare future faculty members to serve retention roles, but complete retention of students whose beliefs do not align with best practice may not be desirable.

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Michael A. Hemphill and K. Andrew R. Richards


The purpose of this study was to examine youth development outcomes in an Urban Squash program.


A mixed method approach to was employed to address three research questions: 1) to what extent did the Urban Squash program exhibit features of a quality OST program?; 2) what aspects of the Urban Squash program were most valued by participants and stakeholders?; and 3) how were outcomes gained within urban squash transferred into the school day. The OST Observation Instrument was employed to provide a measure of fidelity related to the implementation of quality program structures. Youth participants (N = 21) and adults (N = 13) with knowledge of the program were interviewed in a semistructured format. Qualitative inductive analysis and constant comparison methods were used to generate themes.


Systematic observations demonstrated that the program reflected a strong program design with activities that were sequenced, active, personally focused, and explicit. Within that context, four qualitative themes related to quality programming include 1) academic enrichment, 2) academic transfer, 3) relationships, and 4) personal and social responsibility.


Urban Squash provided a quality program structure. Transfer from the program to the school was evident with academic enrichment and personal and social responsibility.

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K. Andrew R. Richards and Victoria N. Shiver

Purpose: The authors sought to trace the development of the teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) model from its initial conception by Don Hellison as a humanistic approach to teaching physical education to the current version of the model through qualitative historiography. Methods: Data sources included: (a) books written by Don, (b) sources that discussed the evolution of the model, and (c) supplemental texts that are important to the TPSR literature. Results: The authors identified four phases of TPSR model development: (a) setting the stage for a humanistic approach through practical inquiry, (b) moving beyond balls and bats to developing a model focused on the affective domain, (c) further defining humanistic goals and teaching strategies, and (d) continuous tinkering in the context of a living model. Discussion/Conclusions: Lessons learned about the model are discussed in relation to practical inquiry, and recommendations are made related to the future of the TPSR model.

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K. Andrew, R. Richards and James D. Ressler

Self-study is a self-focused, improvement-oriented approach to understanding one’s own professional practices while also forging recommendations for the larger community of learners within a discipline. Faculty in teacher education have been engaging in self-study research since the early 1990s, and the approach has recently been adopted by faculty working in physical education teacher education. The purpose of this research note is to advocate for the use of self-study as part of a larger research agenda focused on understanding faculty development and experiences within physical education teacher education. We connect the self-study of teacher education practices to occupational socialization theory and discuss the ways in which self-study can help faculty think more critically about their work as it relates to teaching, research, and service. We also discuss best practices for self-study and lessons learned as they relate to an ongoing research project. We close by discussing implications of self-study work and recommendations for future research.

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K. Andrew R. Richards and Thomas J. Templin

Chapter 2 overviewed the teacher pipeline and documented some of the challenges faced by the physical education profession in relation to teacher education recruitment and retention. Given declining program enrollments and the elimination of some once-prominent programs, a theory of action is recommended for understanding how the field can better recruit and retain diverse, highly qualified preservice teachers. In this chapter, we argue that occupational socialization theory presents one such theory of action. We begin with an overview of the theory in a general sense and then discuss possible implications for preservice teacher recruitment and retention. Recommended recruitment efforts focus on leveraging both physical education teacher education faculty members and in-service teachers as agents of recruitment; retention strategies relate to developing field-based teacher education programs that adopt a constructivist approach to teaching and learning. We conclude by describing how occupational socialization theory relates to guide research presented within this monograph.

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K. Andrew R. Richards and Michael A. Hemphill

The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of a structured, rigorous approach to collaborative qualitative analysis while attending to challenges associated with working in team environments. The method is rooted in qualitative data analysis literature related to thematic analysis, as well as the constant comparative method. It seeks to capitalize on the benefits of coordinating qualitative data analysis in groups, while controlling for some of the challenges introduced when working with multiple analysts. The method includes the following six phases: (a) preliminary organization and planning, (b) open and axial coding, (c) development of a preliminary codebook, (d) pilot testing the codebook, (e) the final coding process, and (f) reviewing the codebook and finalizing themes. These phases are supported by strategies to enhance trustworthiness, such as (a) peer debriefing, (b) researcher and data triangulation, (c) an audit trail and researcher journal, and (d) a search for negative cases.

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Wesley J. Wilson and K. Andrew R. Richards

Occupational socialization theory has been used to understand the recruitment, education, and socialization of physical education teachers for nearly 40 yr. It has, however, only recently been applied to the study of adapted physical education teachers. The purpose of this descriptive case study was to understand the socialization of preservice teachers in an adapted physical education teacher education graduate-level program. Participants included 17 purposefully selected preservice teachers (5 male and 12 female) enrolled in a yearlong graduate-level adapted physical education teacher education program. Qualitative data were collected using interviews, reflective journaling, and field notes taken during teaching and coursework observations. Data analysis resulted in the construction of 3 themes: overcoming contextual challenges to meet learners’ needs, the importance of field-based teacher education, and coping with the challenges of marginalization. The discussion connects to and advances occupational socialization theory in adapted physical education and suggests that professional socialization may have a more profound influence on preservice adapted physical education teachers than on their physical education counterparts.

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Andrew D. Eberline and Thomas J. Templin

Secondary professional socialization is a phase of occupational socialization theory that focuses on graduate education in preparation for a career in academia. Due to the need to present and publish research and make professional contacts, professional organizations likely serve an important socializing function during graduate education. The purpose of this exploratory study was to understand graduate students’ perspectives of participating in professional organizations. Participants included 16 health and physical education graduate students who shared their experiences in focus group interviews. Data were analyzed using constant comparison and inductive analysis. Results indicate graduate students become involved in professional organizations primarily due to faculty encouragement. Participants highlighted networking as a benefit of involvement, and viewed professional learning and opportunities to present research as important to their career development. Results are discussed through the lens of occupational socialization theory, and limitations and implications for graduate student training are shared.

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Karen Lux Gaudreault and Amelia Mays Woods

Purpose: This study sought to develop a quantitative understanding of factors that reduce perceived isolation and marginalization among physical educators. A conceptual model for the relationships among study variables was developed. Method: Data were collected through an online survey completed by 419 inservice physical educators (210 females, 209 males, 93.60% Caucasian). Variables included perceived mattering, resilience, personal accomplishment, as well as isolation and marginalization. Primary data analyses included structural equation modeling to test the hypothesized relationships in the conceptual model. Results: The structural equation model fit was good, χ2(315) = 669.38, p < .001, RMSEA = .05 (90% CI = [.05, .06], p = .285), SRMR = .05, NNFI = .93, CFI = .94. After removing non-significant regression pathways, the structural model generally confirmed the study hypotheses. Discussion/Conclusion: Enhancing personal accomplishment and resilience helps to foster perceptions of mattering, which reduces physical educators’ perceived isolation and marginalization.

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Nicholas S. Washburn, K. Andrew R. Richards and Oleg A. Sinelnikov

Purpose: Despite being linked with motivationally supportive instruction, little research has investigated antecedents to physical educators’ psychological need satisfaction. This study examined relationships between physical educators’ perceived mattering, role stress, and psychological need satisfaction. Method: The participants included 472 in-service physical educators (232 males and 240 females) from the eastern United States who completed an online survey. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate a conceptual model detailing the relationships among study variables. Results: The conceptual model was a good fit for the data, χ2(358) = 657.16, p < .001, root mean square error of approximation = .042 (90% confidence interval [.037, .047], p = .996), standardized root mean residual = .051, nonnormalized fit index = .949, comparative fit index = .955. Generally, perceived mattering influenced role ambiguity and relatedness satisfaction. Role overload and role ambiguity are negatively associated with competence satisfaction, and role conflict is negatively associated with autonomy satisfaction. Discussion: The findings indicate that elevating physical education teachers’ perceived mattering may reduce role stress and increase psychological need satisfaction.