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Kaori Ishii, Ai Shibata and Koichiro Oka

Background:

Although physical activity is associated with a lower risk of colon cancer, few studies have described the physical activity required for colon cancer prevention in various sociodemographic subgroups. The current study examined the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of attaining the 2 recommended physical activity criteria for colon cancer prevention among Japanese adults.

Methods:

The sample included 5322 Japanese adults aged 20 to 79 years. Seven sociodemographic attributes (eg, gender, age, education level, employment status) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were assessed via an Internet-based survey. The odds of meeting each physical activity criterion by sociodemographic variables were calculated.

Results:

Overall, 23.8% of the study population met the criterion of ≥ 420 minutes of moderate-intensity activity, and 6.4% met the criterion of ≥ 210 minutes of vigorous activity. Being male, highly educated, employed, living with another person, being married and having a higher household income were significantly correlated with the attainment of recommendations.

Conclusions:

Participants who met the 2 activity recommendations differed in gender, education level, employment status, marital status, living conditions, and household income. The findings of the current study imply that strategies to promote more intense physical activity in all demographic groups may be necessary.

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Kaori Ishii, Ai Shibata, Minoru Adachi, Yoshiyuki Mano and Koichiro Oka

Background:

Sedentary behaviors (SB) are associated with health indicators; however, there are currently very few studies that have examined these associations, especially in conjunction with psychological factors, in children. The current study examined the independent relationship between objectively assessed SB, and indicators of obesity and psychological well-being, among Japanese children.

Methods:

A total of 967 elementary-school children completed a cross-sectional survey. SB was measured with accelerometers for 7 consecutive days. Psychological well-being data (eg, anxiety and behavior problems) were collected via a self-report questionnaire. To determine the relationship of SB with degree of obesity and psychological well-being, linear regression analyses were conducted to relate the indicators of obesity and psychological well-being on SB, adjusted by gender, grade, percentage of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day, duration spent wearing the accelerometer, and degree of obesity.

Results:

SB was significantly related to behavioral/emotional problems (β = .280, P = .010, R 2 = .015). There was a statistically significant relationship between SB and anxiety (β = .206, P = .059, R 2 = .007). No significant association with degree of obesity was found.

Conclusions:

Excess SB relates higher levels of behavioral/emotional problems and anxiety. These results can inspire the development of interventions that promote well-being and enhance psychological health, by focusing on SB in Japanese children.

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Kazuhiro Harada, Koichiro Oka, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Yoshio Nakamura, Shigeru Inoue and Teruichi Shimomitsu

The authors examined the relationship between strength-training behavior and perceived environment in older Japanese adults. An Internet-based survey was conducted of 293 adults age 68.2 ± 2.8 yr. The dependent variable was regular strength-training behavior. The IPAQ environment module, access to facilities for strength training, and home equipment for strength training were environmental factors. Logistic-regression analysis was employed. After demographic variables (gender, age, educational background, household income, body-mass index, self-rated health status, smoking habit, and residential area) were adjusted for, home equipment for strength training (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.50–3.06), access to facilities for strength training (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.32–4.85), and observing active people (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.06–4.58) were positively correlated with regular strength-training behavior. In conclusion, environmental factors associated with strength-training behavior were access to facilities for strength training, having home equipment for strength training, and observing active people.

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Yung Liao, Takemi Sugiyama, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Shigeru Inoue, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Neville Owen and Koichiro Oka

Background:

This study examined associations of perceived and objectively measured neighborhood environmental attributes with leisure-time sitting for transport among middle-to-older aged Japanese adults.

Method:

Data were collected using a postal survey of 998 adults aged 40 to 69 years. Generalized linear modeling with a gamma distribution and a log link was used to examine associations of perceived (International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Environmental module) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-derived built environment attributes with self-reported leisure-time sitting for transport.

Results:

Mean leisure-time sitting time for transport was 20.4 min/day. After adjusting for potential confounders, perceived higher residential density, GIS-measured higher population density, better access to destinations, better access to public transport, longer sidewalk length, and higher street connectivity, were associated significantly with lower sitting time for transport.

Conclusion:

Residents living in neighborhoods with attributes previously found to be associated with more walking tended to spend less time sitting for transport during leisure-time. The health benefits of walkability-related attributes may accrue not only through increased physical activity, but also through less sedentary time.