Context: Therapeutic ultrasound clinical parameters are provided in many modality textbooks based on research performed with the Omnisound brand. Literature exists to support variability in heating rates with different manufacturers. It is unknown if the Dynatron Solaris heats at rates consistent with textbook recommendations. Objective: Determine the rate of tissue-temperature increases in the medial triceps surae with the Dynatron Solaris® 708 ultrasound unit. Design: 3 × 13 repeated measures. Independent variables were tissue depth (1.0, 1.75, and 2.5 cm) and time (13 time periods throughout the treatment). Setting: Research laboratory. Participants: 30 healthy volunteers (female = 11, male = 19; age 21.30 ± 1.95 y; adipose thickness = 0.54 ± 0.15 cm). Intervention: Three thermocouples were inserted into the medial triceps surae at 1.0, 1.75, and 2.5-cm depths. A continuous 3-MHz, 1.0-W/cm2 for 20 minutes ultrasound treatment was performed with a Dynatron Solaris 708 machine. Main Outcome Measures: Intramuscular tissue-temperature increases at each depth throughout the 20-min treatment. Results: There was a significant main effect of depth (F 2,52 = 29.76, P < 0.001) and time (F 12,312 = 181.59, P < .001) and a significant interaction between times and depths (F 24,624 = 15.49, P < .001). The 1.0-cm depth increased 4.22 ± 1.58°C in 6 min (0.70°C/min rate), the 1.75-cm depth increased 3.93 ± 1.94°C in 10 min (0.39°C/min rate), and the 2.5-cm depth increased 3.60 ± 1.86°C in 20 min (0.18°C/min rate). Conclusions: The rate of tissue-temperature increase varied at each depth and the 1.0-cm depth was the only rate similar to textbooks. Clinicians will not reach tissue-temperature goals using Omnisound textbook parameters on the Dynatron Solaris 708 at depths greater than 1.0 cm, which may affect clinicians, educators, and state-certification exams.
Kara N. Gange, Michael C. Kjellerson and Christiane J. Berdan
Katie J. Lyman, Michael McCrone, Thomas A. Hanson, Christopher D. Mellinger and Kara Gange
Context: Allied health care professionals commonly apply cryotherapy as treatment for acute musculoskeletal trauma and the associated symptoms. Understanding the impact of a tape barrier on intramuscular temperature can assist in determining treatment duration for effective cryotherapy. Objective: To determine whether Kinesio® Tape acts as a barrier that affects intramuscular temperature during cryotherapy application. Design: A repeated-measures, counterbalanced design in which the independent variable was tape application and the dependent variable was muscle temperature as measured by thermocouples placed 1 cm beneath the adipose layer. Additional covariates for robustness were body mass index and adipose thickness. Setting: University research laboratory. Participants: Nineteen male college students with no contraindications to cryotherapy, no known sensitivity to Kinesio® Tape, and no reported quadriceps injury within the past 6 months. Intervention: Topical cryotherapy: cubed ice bags of 1 kg and 0.5 kg. Main Outcome Measures: Intramuscular temperature. Results: The tape barrier had no statistically significant effect on muscle temperature. The pattern of temperature change was indistinguishable between participants with and without tape application. Conclusions: Findings suggest that health care professionals can combine cryotherapy with a Kinesio® Tape application without any need for adjustments to cryotherapy duration.
Samantha J. Wilson, Bryan Christensen, Kara Gange, Christopher Todden, Harlene Hatterman-Valenti and Jay M. Albrecht
Context: Chronic plantarflexor (PF) stretching during ankle immobilization helps preserve calf girth, plantarflexion peak torque, and ankle dorsiflexion (DF) motion. Immobilization can lead to decreases in muscle peak torque, muscle size, and joint range of motion (ROM). Recurrent static stretching during a period of immobilization may reduce the extent of these losses. Objective: To investigate the effects of chronic static stretching on PF peak torque, calf girth, and DF ROM after 2 weeks of ankle immobilization. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Athletic training facility. Participants: A total of 36 healthy college-aged (19.81 [2.48]) females. Interventions: Subjects were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: control group, immobilized group (IM), and immobilized plus stretching (IM+S) group. Each group participated in a familiarization period, a pretest, and, 2 weeks later, a posttest. The IM group and IM+S group wore the Aircast Foam Pneumatic Walker for 2 weeks on the left leg. During this time, the IM+S group participated in a stretching program, which consisted of two 10-minute stretching procedures each day for the 14 days. Main Outcome Measures: One-way analysis of variance was used to determine differences in the change of ankle girth, PF peak torque, and DF ROM between groups with an α level of <.05. Results: A significant difference was noted between groups in girth (F 2,31 = 5.64, P = .01), DF ROM (F 2,31 = 26.13, P < .001), and PF peak torque (F 2,31 = 7.74, P = .002). Post hoc testing also showed a significance difference between change in calf girth of the control group compared with the IM group (P = .01) and a significant difference in change of peak torque in the IM+S group and the IM group (P = .001). Also, a significant difference was shown in DF ROM between the control group and IM+S group (P = .01), the control group and the IM group (P < .001), and the IM+S group and the IM group (P < .001). Conclusion: Chronic static stretching during 2 weeks of immobilization may decrease the loss of calf girth, ankle PF peak torque, and ankle DF ROM.