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  • Author: Karen Bonnesen x
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Sarah Staal, Anders Sjödin, Ida Fahrenholtz, Karen Bonnesen and Anna Katarina Melin

Ballet dancers are reported to have an increased risk for energy deficiency with or without disordered eating behavior. A low ratio between measured (m) and predicted (p) resting metabolic rate (RMRratio < 0.90) is a recognized surrogate marker for energy deficiency. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of suppressed RMR using different methods to calculate pRMR and to explore associations with additional markers of energy deficiency. Female (n = 20) and male (n = 20) professional ballet dancers, 19–35 years of age, were enrolled. mRMR was assessed by respiratory calorimetry (ventilated open hood). pRMR was determined using the Cunningham and Harris–Benedict equations, and different tissue compartments derived from whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry assessment. The protocol further included assessment of body composition and bone mineral density, blood pressure, disordered eating (Eating Disorder Inventory-3), and for females, the Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire. The prevalence of suppressed RMR was generally high but also clearly dependent on the method used to calculate pRMR, ranging from 25% to 80% in males and 35% to 100% in females. Five percent had low bone mineral density, whereas 10% had disordered eating and 25% had hypotension. Forty percent of females had elevated Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire score and 50% were underweight. Suppressed RMR was associated with elevated Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire score in females and with higher training volume in males. In conclusion, professional ballet dancers are at risk for energy deficiency. The number of identified dancers at risk varies greatly depending on the method used to predict RMR when using RMRratio as a marker for energy deficiency.