Internationalization is a very relevant topic on university campuses and most universities include a commitment to it in their mission statement or strategic plans. Over the years, universities have realized the importance of providing students with an international perspective that will prepare them to succeed in an increasingly globalized world. The globalization of the sport industry makes our field an ideal medium for addressing the concept of internationalization. As leaders in the field of sport management, we must ensure that we teach, research, and advocate from an international perspective. This paper discusses how we as sport management academicians and students might prepare ourselves to become global citizens by internationalizing ourselves through our teaching, research, and service. A commentary on the status of internationalization in our field as well as suggestions for change is provided.
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Katie Lebel and Karen Danylchuk
The purpose of this study was to gain insight into Generation Y’s perceptions of women’s sport in the media. Twenty-four participants were recruited and organized into 4 gender-specific focus groups. Participants identified televised sport as a primary and preferred method of sport consumption. Women’s sports were linked with inaccessibility and perceived as inferior to men’s sport in terms of athletic skill and general atmosphere. An underrepresentation of women’s sport in the media was held responsible for the limited awareness surrounding women’s sport. Societal expectations instilled during early socialization processes and limited female opportunity in sport also emerged as critical barriers. Most participants regarded the inequality in women’s sport with indifference and were satisfied as sport enthusiasts with the opportunities for consumption available in men’s sport. This conservative approach to women’s sport suggests that Generation Y’s perceptions wield noteworthy influence on their sport consumption behaviors.
Katie Lebel and Karen Danylchuk
The innovations of social media have altered the traditional methods of fan–athlete interaction while redefining how celebrity athletes practice their roles as celebrities. This study explored gender differences in professional athletes’ self-presentation on Twitter. Content analyses were used to compare male and female athletes’ tweets relayed by all professional tennis players with a verified Twitter account. Profile details and messages were scoured for themes and patterns of use during the time surrounding the 2011 U.S. Open Tennis Championships. Goffman’s seminal 1959 theory of self-presentation guided the analysis. While athlete image construction was found to be largely similar between genders, male athletes were found to spend more time in the role of sport fan while female athletes spent more time in the role of brand manager.
Katie Lebel and Karen Danylchuk
This study investigated how professional athletes present themselves in their Twitter profile pictures and how athlete self-presentation is interpreted by a Generation Y audience (N = 206). Goffman’s theory of self-presentation guided the analysis with a specific focus on the notions of front- and backstage performances as they relate to impression-management strategies. Participants assessed a sample of profile photos of the most followed male and female athletes on Twitter by providing their first impressions of each athlete’s image and then evaluating photo favorability and effectiveness. This research provides evidence to suggest that individuals invest meaning in the social cues provided in athlete profile pictures. Athletes who highlighted a sport context were consistently ranked most favorably and effectively and were linked with positive word associations. These findings underscore the importance of a strategic alignment between social-media profile content, profile photos, and the brand established by athletes.
Karen E. Danylchuk
The prevalence of occupational burnout and its relationship to job Stressors and job attitudes were examined in physical education faculties/departments as a function of sex, age, marital status, family status, years of work experience in higher education, and type of appointment. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach & Jackson, 1986), which measures burnout in terms of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment, was the instrument used. Females, individuals 39 years or under, single subjects, coaches, and nontenured faculty/staff reported significantly higher levels of emotional exhaustion than their counterparts. None of the demographic factors was significantly associated with depersonalization or personal accomplishment. Regression analyses indicated that three Stressors—quantitative overload, job scope, and time pressure-—explained the greatest amount of variance in emotional exhaustion; organization structure and human resource development contributed the most to depersonalization. None of the job Stressors contributed to the variance in personal accomplishment.
Karen E. Danylchuk
The prevalence of occupational Stressors in physical education faculties/ departments as a function of sex, age, marital status, family status, years of work experience in higher education, and type of appointment was examined through use of the Stress Diagnostic Survey (Ivancevich & Matteson, 1988a). This multidimensional self-report inventory consists of 17 dimensions, which are further subdivided into organizational Stressors (macrostressors) and individual Stressors (microstressors). The sample reported moderate degrees of stress in comparison to the normative data with the macrostressors being greater sources of stress than the microstressors. Quantitative overload was rated the highest followed by time pressure and rewards. Qualitative overload was rated lowest followed by role ambiguity and role conflict. Sex was associated with the greatest number of Stressors—gender discrimination, quantitative overload, and time pressure. Females perceived these three Stressors to be significantly greater sources of stress than did males.
Laura Wood, Marijke Taks, and Karen Danylchuk
The purpose of this study was to examine communication strategies used by marketing practitioners when targeting tweens (age 9–14) in a sport context. The examination’s main objective was to determine whether these strategies are similar to those depicted in the literature. Using Kotler et al.’s 5-stage model for effective communication, practitioners’ viewpoints of what constitutes an effective communication strategy were studied through the use of semistructured interviews (N = 5). Results revealed the benefit of using technology in a communication platform and the need to be up to date with the technologies used by youth. Another key finding relates to language. The youth market has a welldeveloped method of communicating with each other, and to reach and penetrate this group, marketers need to be well versed in the use of this language.
Alison J. Doherty and Karen E. Danylchuk
This study examined the leader behavior of interuniversity athletic administrators according to Bass's (1985) transformational/transactional leadership model. The impact of that behavior on subordinates’ satisfaction with leadership, perceived leader effectiveness, departmental commitment, and extra effort was also examined. A sample of head coaches from Ontario universities (N = 114) completed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5X (Bass & Avolio, 1991) with regard to their athletic administrators. The resultant profile was one of predominantly transformational as opposed to transactional or nonleadership behavior. Furthermore, leader-centered behavior (idealized influence, attributed charisma) was used more often than subordinate-centered behavior (individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation). Coaches' satisfaction with leadership, perceived leader effectiveness, and extra effort were positively and strongly associated with transformational leadership and contingent reward behavior, whereas negative relationships were observed for management-by-exception (passive) and nonleadership behaviors. Leader behavior was not associated with the coaches' commitment to the athletic department.
Karen E. Danylchuk and Packianathan Chelladurai
This study described and analyzed the managerial work in Canadian intercollegiate athletics. The directors of 37 Canadian intercollegiate athletic departments responded to a questionnaire eliciting perceived importance of, time devoted to, and percentage responsibility for 19 managerial activities carried out by athletic departments. These managerial activities were largely patterned after Mintzberg's (1975) description of managerial work and were verified by a group of experts. Results showed that financial management, leadership, policy making, disturbance handling, revenue generation, and a Mete affairs were perceived to be the most important and most time consuming activities. Information seeking, maintenance activities, and league responsibilities were rated the least important. The athletic directors reported that they were largely responsible for the more important tasks with average percent responsibility of 55%. The average responsibility assigned to assistant directors was 29.5%, and this limited responsibility was significantly but inversely related to the importance of the tasks.
Karen E. Danylchuk and Joanne MacLean
As the new millennium begins, we find intercollegiate sport in Canadian universities at a crossroads. Although the Canadian Interuniversity Athletic Union (CIAU), the governing body for university sport in Canada, has a history of recurring issues and challenges, further change is imminent. This paper provides the perspective of two Canadian intercollegiate athletic administrators and sport management academicians on the future of intercollegiate sport in Canada by focusing on five major areas of concern: (a) diversity, (b) governance, (c) funding of athletics, (d) the role and value of athletics, and (e) the changing environmental context of the university. The authors conclude that university sport in Canada will remain embedded within the non-profit, amateur fabric of the Canadian sporting milieu characterized by a participant rather than spectator focus, men's sport domination, decreased funding sources, and pressures to justify its role and value within a rapidly changing environment. The diversity evident throughout the CIAU will continue to have a compelling impact on the organization.