The prevalence of occupational Stressors in physical education faculties/ departments as a function of sex, age, marital status, family status, years of work experience in higher education, and type of appointment was examined through use of the Stress Diagnostic Survey (Ivancevich & Matteson, 1988a). This multidimensional self-report inventory consists of 17 dimensions, which are further subdivided into organizational Stressors (macrostressors) and individual Stressors (microstressors). The sample reported moderate degrees of stress in comparison to the normative data with the macrostressors being greater sources of stress than the microstressors. Quantitative overload was rated the highest followed by time pressure and rewards. Qualitative overload was rated lowest followed by role ambiguity and role conflict. Sex was associated with the greatest number of Stressors—gender discrimination, quantitative overload, and time pressure. Females perceived these three Stressors to be significantly greater sources of stress than did males.
Karen E. Danylchuk
Karen E. Danylchuk
The prevalence of occupational burnout and its relationship to job Stressors and job attitudes were examined in physical education faculties/departments as a function of sex, age, marital status, family status, years of work experience in higher education, and type of appointment. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach & Jackson, 1986), which measures burnout in terms of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment, was the instrument used. Females, individuals 39 years or under, single subjects, coaches, and nontenured faculty/staff reported significantly higher levels of emotional exhaustion than their counterparts. None of the demographic factors was significantly associated with depersonalization or personal accomplishment. Regression analyses indicated that three Stressors—quantitative overload, job scope, and time pressure-—explained the greatest amount of variance in emotional exhaustion; organization structure and human resource development contributed the most to depersonalization. None of the job Stressors contributed to the variance in personal accomplishment.
Karen E. Danylchuk and Packianathan Chelladurai
This study described and analyzed the managerial work in Canadian intercollegiate athletics. The directors of 37 Canadian intercollegiate athletic departments responded to a questionnaire eliciting perceived importance of, time devoted to, and percentage responsibility for 19 managerial activities carried out by athletic departments. These managerial activities were largely patterned after Mintzberg's (1975) description of managerial work and were verified by a group of experts. Results showed that financial management, leadership, policy making, disturbance handling, revenue generation, and a Mete affairs were perceived to be the most important and most time consuming activities. Information seeking, maintenance activities, and league responsibilities were rated the least important. The athletic directors reported that they were largely responsible for the more important tasks with average percent responsibility of 55%. The average responsibility assigned to assistant directors was 29.5%, and this limited responsibility was significantly but inversely related to the importance of the tasks.
Karen E. Danylchuk and Joanne MacLean
As the new millennium begins, we find intercollegiate sport in Canadian universities at a crossroads. Although the Canadian Interuniversity Athletic Union (CIAU), the governing body for university sport in Canada, has a history of recurring issues and challenges, further change is imminent. This paper provides the perspective of two Canadian intercollegiate athletic administrators and sport management academicians on the future of intercollegiate sport in Canada by focusing on five major areas of concern: (a) diversity, (b) governance, (c) funding of athletics, (d) the role and value of athletics, and (e) the changing environmental context of the university. The authors conclude that university sport in Canada will remain embedded within the non-profit, amateur fabric of the Canadian sporting milieu characterized by a participant rather than spectator focus, men's sport domination, decreased funding sources, and pressures to justify its role and value within a rapidly changing environment. The diversity evident throughout the CIAU will continue to have a compelling impact on the organization.
Brenda G. Pitts and Karen E. Danylchuk
This study examined the current textbooks in sport management using the quantitative content analytic research method. Sport management books selected for examination were limited to those written in English published from 1990 through to November 2006 inclusive. Of the 129 books representing 14 categories analyzed, the greatest number of books was in the categories of management (n = 36) and marketing (n = 27). These categories were followed by law (n = 13), finance (n = 9), and event management (n = 8). The majority of the books (88%) were authored. Among the authors and editors, 79% were male. The majority of books (85%) did not indicate a target audience. The average year of publication of all books was 2001, with almost three-quarters (73%) being published from the year 2000 onwards. The number of publishers was 40, of which the vast majority was in the United States.
Sue Inglis, Karen E. Danylchuk, and Donna Pastore
Within intercollegiate athletic work environments, the retention of coaches and athletic administrators continues to be an issue. Understanding the factors considered important for retaining coaching and athletic management positions has potential significance for reversing the decline of the number of individuals, in particular, women, from these positions, and for increasing the attractiveness of such career pathways. This study developed a scale of retention factors that resulted in three empirically supported factors—Work Balance and Conditions, Recognition and Collegial Support, and Inclusivity. The factors were derived through principal components analysis with varimax rotation using a sample of 359 Canadian and American intercollegiate coaches and athletic administrators. These factors support the need to consider gender and power relations in the search for fuller explanations of women's experiences at work.
Karen E. Danylchuk and Michael R. Judd
A readership survey of Journal of Sport Management (JSM) subscribers was conducted to investigate the journal's readership and usage. A secondary purpose was to examine the usage of other journals for teaching, research, and publication. A total of 178 respondents answered the survey for a return rate of 44.5%. General satisfaction with the journal was reflected in the positive comments ascribed to the journal as well as in the high ratings for readership and value of each section of the journal. The most frequently mentioned suggestions/comments for the journal were as follows: (a) Make it more practically oriented, (b) increase the number of issues, (c) provide some focus for job positions/openings and contacts for graduates seeking employment, (d) maintain or increase the theoretical orientation, and (e) provide more international contributions. JSM was considered the most important journal for the sport management profession by 76% of the respondents.
Alison J. Doherty and Karen E. Danylchuk
This study examined the leader behavior of interuniversity athletic administrators according to Bass's (1985) transformational/transactional leadership model. The impact of that behavior on subordinates’ satisfaction with leadership, perceived leader effectiveness, departmental commitment, and extra effort was also examined. A sample of head coaches from Ontario universities (N = 114) completed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5X (Bass & Avolio, 1991) with regard to their athletic administrators. The resultant profile was one of predominantly transformational as opposed to transactional or nonleadership behavior. Furthermore, leader-centered behavior (idealized influence, attributed charisma) was used more often than subordinate-centered behavior (individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation). Coaches' satisfaction with leadership, perceived leader effectiveness, and extra effort were positively and strongly associated with transformational leadership and contingent reward behavior, whereas negative relationships were observed for management-by-exception (passive) and nonleadership behaviors. Leader behavior was not associated with the coaches' commitment to the athletic department.
Sue Inglis, Karen E. Danylchuk, and Donna L. Pastore
This paper is an exploration of the multiple realities of women’s work experiences in coaching and athletic management positions. Eleven women who had previously coached or directed women’s athletics programs were interviewed using a semi-structured approach. Three general categories emerged from the data — Support, Gender Differences, and Change. The work experiences reflect problems the women encountered at work, how organizations can be empowering, and the impact empowered women can have on the social construction of work. Based upon the data, we suggest that the individual search for empowerment takes different forms, yet also acknowledges that systemic changes must take place in order to improve the work environment for women. These findings are significant because they validate women’s experiences and contribute to the understanding of work experiences of those who are underrepresented and often left out of key circles of power and control.