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Consuelo Belmonte Gonzalez-Suarez and Karen Grimmer-Somers

Background:

Childhood obesity has been inconsistently associated with decreased levels of physical activity and fitness. Moreover, little is known about this relationship among Filipino preteens.

Methods:

This cross sectional study reports the association between childhood obesity, measures of physical activity, and fitness. Children aged 11 to 12 from randomly selected schools from San Juan, Metromanila were included. Outcome measures were body mass index, Filipino modified Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older children (F_PAQ-C), standing broad jump, 50 m sprint and 20 m multistage shuttle run.

Results:

380 children participated in the study. Obese children had significantly lower median scores in the F_PAQ-C compared with overweight children. Overweight children had lower scores in the standing broad jump, 50 m sprints and predicted VO2max as compared with children with normal BMI. There were modest associations between the 50 m sprint, predicted VO2max, and F_PAQ-C.

Conclusion:

Our study has showed that physical activity and fitness scores were strongly correlated with childhood obesity. If childhood physical fitness is a predictor of physical fitness in adulthood which is a risk factor in cardiovascular diseases, there is a strong possibility that the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the Philippines will increase dramatically in the future.

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Koya Mine, Takashi Nakayama, Steve Milanese and Karen Grimmer

Context:

Posterior shoulder tightness (PST) and glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD) can contribute to shoulder pain suffered by athletes engaged in overhead sporting activities. Stretching is a common intervention to resolve PST and GIRD, but it has weak evidence of effectiveness to date.

Objective:

This systematic review aimed to collect and synthesize effectiveness data from English- and Japanese-language randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating stretching interventions for PST and GIRD.

Evidence Acquisition:

7 English databases and 3 Japanese databases were searched from inception until December 5, 2015. Only English- and Japanese-language RCTs were considered. Risk of bias in the included studies was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Data were synthesized qualitatively.

Evidence Synthesis:

Eight English-language and 2 Japanese-language papers of low to high quality were included. There was moderate evidence for positive immediate and short-term effects of cross-body stretch on PST and GIRD in asymptomatic young subjects. Moderate evidence was found to suggest that active sleeper stretch might not be more effective than no intervention to improve PST and GIRD in the short term.

Conclusions:

Cross-body stretch can be effective to improve PST and GIRD in asymptomatic young subjects immediately or in the short term. Further study with methodological rigor is necessary to investigate the long-term effectiveness of stretching interventions on PST and GIRD in symptomatic patients.