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Philip Noyes, Lawrence Fung, Karen K. Lee, Victoria E. Grimshaw, Adam Karpati and Laura DiGrande

Background:

Regular physical activity such as biking can help prevent obesity and chronic disease. Improvements in cycling infrastructure are associated with higher overall cycling rates, but less is known about bike lane utilization in low-income urban neighborhoods.

Methods:

During the summer of 2009, 4 Central Brooklyn streets with bicycle lanes were studied using camcorders to record for a total of 40 hours. Video recordings were coded for behaviors and characteristics of cyclists and motorists. An intercept survey (N = 324, 42% participation rate) captured information on cyclist demographics, behaviors, and attitudes.

Results:

1282 cyclists were observed on study streets. Cyclists were primarily male (80.0%) and non-White (54.5%). 9.9% of motorists drove in the bike lane and parked vehicles blocked the bike lane for 9.6% of the observational period. Of cyclists surveyed, 69.4% lived locally, 61.3% were normal weight or underweight, and 64.8% met recommended levels of physical activity by cycling 30+ minutes/day on 5+ days of the past week.

Conclusions:

Bicycle lanes were used by local residents of a low-income urban neighborhood. Compared with neighborhood residents overall, cyclists reported better health and health behaviors. Enhancing infrastructure that supports active transportation may be effective in reducing health inequities in low-income urban communities.

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Janice Kaye Loudon, Byron Gajewski, Heather L. Goist-Foley and Karen Lee Loudon

Objective:

To determine the effect of exercise on patients with patellofemoral-pain syndrome (PFPS).

Patients:

29 subjects with unilateral PFPS, assigned to control, home-exercise (HE), or physical therapy (PT) group.

Intervention:

8-wk exercise program.

Main Outcome Measures:

A knee survey, visual analog scale (VAS), and 5 weight-bearing tests.

Results:

MANOVA indicated an overall statistical difference between groups (P < .05). The HE and PT groups experienced less pain than control, and PT experienced less pain than HE (P < .05). In overall knee function and most weight-bearing tests, HE and PT were stronger and more functional than control (P < .05). For anteromedial lunge only PT was stronger and more functional than control (P < .05).

Conclusions:

Intervention helps PFPS, but there appear to be no differences between home and in-clinic interventions.

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Judith E. Rink, Karen French, Amelia M. Lee, Melinda A. Solmon and Susan K. Lynn

Understanding how the knowledge structures of preservice teachers develop as expertise is acquired would seem to be an important aspect of teacher preparation. The purpose of this study was to compare the pedagogical knowledge structures about effective teaching of preservice teachers and teacher educators in the professional preparation programs of two different institutions. Two groups of preservice teachers at two different points in their preparation program at each of the two institutions were asked to complete a concept map (Roehler et al., 1987) about effective teaching. One group completed the concept map just after the first teaching methods course, and the other group completed the map just prior to student teaching. These data were compared with concept maps of teacher educators at each institution. Quantitative and qualitative data revealed differences between the groups of preservice teachers and between the preservice teachers and the teacher educators.

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Lee E.F. Graves, Nicola D. Ridgers, Karen Williams, Gareth Stratton, Greg Atkinson and Nigel T. Cable

Background:

Active video games (exergames) increase energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity (PA) compared with sedentary video gaming. The physiological cost and enjoyment of exergaming in adolescents, and young and older adults has not been documented, nor compared with aerobic exercise. This study compared the physiological cost and enjoyment of exergaming on Wii Fit with aerobic exercise in 3 populations.

Methods:

Cardiorespiratory and enjoyment measurements were compared in 14 adolescents, 15 young adults, and 13 older adults during handheld inactive video gaming, Wii Fit activities (yoga, muscle conditioning, balance, aerobics), and brisk treadmill walking and jogging.

Results:

For all groups EE and heart rate (HR) of Wii Fit activities were greater than handheld gaming (P < .001) but lower than treadmill exercise (P ≤ .001). Wii aerobics elicited moderate intensity activity in adolescents, young adults, and older adults with respective mean (SD) metabolic equivalents of 3.2 (0.7), 3.6 (0.8), and 3.2 (0.8). HR during Wii aerobics fell below the recommended intensity for maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness. Group enjoyment rating was greater for Wii balance and aerobics compared with treadmill walking and jogging (P ≤ .05).

Conclusions:

Wii Fit appears an enjoyable exergame for adolescents and adults, stimulating light-to-moderate intensity activity through the modification of typically sedentary leisure behavior.

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William Bellew, Ben J. Smith, Tracy Nau, Karen Lee, Lindsey Reece and Adrian Bauman

Background: The literature on whole of system approaches (WSAs) has been largely theoretical in focus. The Australian Systems Approaches to Physical Activity is a national project designed to contribute a practical implementation focus to such approaches at the population level. Methods: National meetings were convened with federal and state government sector stakeholders to identify physical activity (PA) related policies and programs. Policies and programs were audited to develop an understanding of the existing PA system. A WSA conceptual map for PA was developed using feedback from system stakeholders, existing WSAs, and related work in obesity. Results: Completion of the policy audit has revealed key areas of need regarding policy governance, coordination, financing, and evaluation. An initial WSA conceptual map for Australia has been developed incorporating governance, translation, and advocacy. Stakeholder co-production of an integrated framework for PA and design plans for a community of practice knowledge hub has commenced. Conclusions: In Australia, Australian Systems Approaches to Physical Activity project partners have developed a conceptual whole of systems map that is guiding progress beyond the theoretical to application in the real world: a national PA policy audit, co-production of an integrated PA policy framework, and planning for a PA community of practice knowledge hub.

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Kristen Day, Lawrence Loh, Ryan Richard Ruff, Randi Rosenblum, Sean Fischer and Karen K. Lee

Background:

Cities across the U.S. and internationally are adopting Bus Rapid Transit to improve transit services for residents. Features of Bus Rapid Transit include fewer stops, dedicated bus lanes, and expedited systems for boarding busses, compared with regular bus service. This study examines whether Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) ridership is associated with increased rates of walking, because of the greater distance between BRT stops compared with regular bus service.

Methods:

Surveys were conducted with riders of local and BRT buses for New York City’s M15 Select Bus Service line. Surveys examined bus ridership, health status and physical activity, walking rates, and demographic information.

Results:

BRT riders reported walking approximately half a block more than did local bus riders. The average number of blocks walked decreased for BRT riders who previously used the subway before the implementation of the BRT.

Conclusions:

BRT may be a useful tool to support walking for some groups. Depending on where it is implemented, BRT may also be associated with reduced walking among users who switch to BRT from other active transportation modes. Future research should examine associations between walking and BRT ridership with a larger sample and more sites.

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Tracy Nau, Karen Lee, Ben J. Smith, William Bellew, Lindsey Reece, Peter Gelius, Harry Rutter and Adrian Bauman

Background: The value of a systems thinking approach to tackling population physical inactivity is increasingly recognized. This study used conceptual systems thinking to develop a cognitive map for physical activity (PA) influences and intervention points, which informed a standardized approach to the coding and notation of PA-related policies in Australia. Methods: Policies were identified through desktop searches and input from 33 nominated government representatives attending 2 national PA policy workshops. Documents were audited using predefined criteria spanning policy development, strategic approaches to PA, implementation processes, and evaluation. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: The audit included 110 policies, mainly led by the health or planning/infrastructure sectors (n = 54, 49%). Most policies purporting to promote PA did so as a cobenefit of another objective that was not focused on PA (n = 63, 57%). An intention to monitor progress was indicated in most (n = 94, 85%); however, fewer than half (n = 52, 47%) contained evaluable goals/actions relevant to PA. Descriptions of resourcing/funding arrangements were generally absent or lacked specific commitment (n = 67, 61%). Conclusions: This study describes current PA-relevant policy in Australia and identifies opportunities for improving coordination, implementation, and evaluation to strengthen a whole-of-system and cross-agency approach to increasing population PA.

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Priscilla Gilliam MacRae, Celee Morris, Cheok Y. Lee, Karen Crum, Dale Giessman, James S. Greene and Jo Ann Ugolini

Comparisons between young and older women runners and sedentary controls were examined on simple and choice reaction time tasks involving elbow flexion and extension. Reaction time was fractionated into premotor and contractile components using electromyography. Young runners were significantly faster and the older controls were significantly slower than all other groups on all reaction time tasks. The older runners were not significantly different from the young controls in any of the reaction time tasks, thus indicating that a history of running may eliminate or retard the slowing of reaction time that normally accompanies aging. All four groups had similar contractile times, indicating that the differences in reaction time were attributed to central processing in the premotor component of reaction time.

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Karen K. Lee, Candace D. Rutt, Andrea Sharma, Michael Pratt, Judd Flesch, L. Michele Maynard, Keri Kennedy, Peggy Adams and Harold W. Kohl III

Background:

In this article, we examine the possibility of reducing time to conduct traffic volume audits through (1) reducing time for manual traffic counting and (2) using Department of Transportation (DOT) information.

Methods:

In audits of 824 road segments in 2 West Virginia (WV) communities, manual traffic counts were recorded for 1, 2, and 5 minutes in duration. Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) was calculated from counts. Available AADT from DOT was also collected. Percent agreement and a weighted kappa were calculated between 5-minute count and 1- and 2-minute count AADT categories and between 5-minute count and DOT AADT categories.

Results:

One- and 2-minute counts produced identical AADT categories as 5-minute counts in 93.4% and 95.0% of segments, respectively. Weighted kappa was 0.79 (95% CI = 0.74–0.85) and 0.85 (95% CI = 0.80–0.89), respectively. Forty-two segments (5.1%) had DOT data.

Conclusions:

DOT AADT was available for a small percentage of road segments assessed. The high agreement between AADT categories produced by 1- and 2-minute counts and 5-minute counts makes it reasonable to consider using 1- or 2-minute manual traffic counts if time or staffing constraints make it necessary. Possible generalizability of this methodology to other communities, particularly larger urban and suburban areas, will require further research.

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Catherine Carty, Hidde P. van der Ploeg, Stuart J.H. Biddle, Fiona Bull, Juana Willumsen, Lindsay Lee, Kaloyan Kamenov and Karen Milton

Background: The World Health Organization has released the first global public health guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behavior for people living with disability. This paper presents the guidelines, related processes, and evidence, and elaborates upon how the guidelines can support inclusive policy, practice, and research. Methods: Methods were consistent with the World Health Organization protocols for developing guidelines. Systematic reviews of the evidence on physical activity for health for people living with disability were appraised, along with a consideration of the evidence used to inform the general 2020 World Health Organization guidelines. Results: Evidence supported the development of recommendations for people living with disability, stressing that there are no major risks to engaging in physical activity appropriate to an individual’s current activity level, health status, and physical function, and that the health benefits accrued generally outweigh the risks. They also emphasize the benefits of limiting sedentary behavior. Conclusions: The guidelines mark a positive step forward for disability inclusion, but considerable effort is needed to advance the agenda. This paper highlights key considerations for the implementation of the new recommendations for people living with disability, in line with the human rights agenda underpinning the Global Action Plan on Physical Activity 2018–2030 and allied policies.