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Kasper Salin, Mikko Huhtiniemi, Anthony Watt, Harto Hakonen and Timo Jaakkola

Background: This study examined the distribution of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary time of fifth-grade students during school, leisure time, and physical education (PE) classes. Demographic, anthropometric, and PA data were collected from 17 representative Finnish schools. Methods: To estimate the PA and sedentary time, participants (N = 592) wore wGT3X-BT ActiGraphs for 7 consecutive days. Comparisons were made between genders and different BMI groups. Results: From the study sample, 43.7% met the moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) guidelines. Participants spent 62.2% of the day sedentary and 8.2% in moderate and vigorous activities. Boys performed more MVPA than girls, and girls were more sedentary during school days. Boys had more MVPA than girls in leisure time, but there were no differences in sedentary time. However, an examination of PA assessed during PE classes revealed no differences between boys and girls. Normal-weight boys engaged in more MVPA than overweight and obese boys. No differences were found for girls. Conclusions: The PA levels differ between different BMI groups in leisure time and during school but not during PE lessons. PA for overweight children should be targeted and compulsory PE time should be increased to achieve the PA guidelines.

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Sami Yli-Piipari, Arto Gråsten, Mikko Huhtiniemi, Kasper Salin, Sanni Seppälä, Harto Hakonen and Timo Jaakkola

This study examined the predictive strength of selected physical education (PE)-centered physical literacy indicators on elementary school students’ accelerometer-measured moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (PA). The study was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 450 Finnish children (M = 11.26 [0.32]; n females = 194; n males = 256). Data on a set of predictor variables (motor competence, in-class PE moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA [MVPA], health-related fitness, and PE motivation and enjoyment) and total MVPA as a single outcome variable were collected. The entire model explained almost 30% of MVPA (R 2 adj = .298). Cardiorespiratory endurance (β = 0.42, 95% confidence interval [0.22, 0.62], p < .001) and MVPA in PE (β = 0.27, 95% confidence interval [0.09, 0.44], p = .004) were statistically significant predictors of MVPA. It can be concluded that, of all included variables, cardiorespiratory endurance and MVPA in PE were the most important factors contributing to healthy levels of total MVPA in childhood.

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Xiaolin Yang, Irinja Lounassalo, Anna Kankaanpää, Mirja Hirvensalo, Suvi P. Rovio, Asko Tolvanen, Stuart J.H. Biddle, Harri Helajärvi, Sanna H. Palomäki, Kasper Salin, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Olli T. Raitakari and Tuija H. Tammelin

Background: The purpose of this study was to examine trajectories of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and television-viewing (TV) time and their associations in adults over 10 years. Methods: The sample comprised 2934 participants (men, 46.0%) aged 24–39 years in 2001 and they were followed up for 10 years. LTPA and TV time were assessed using self-report questionnaires in 2001, 2007, and 2011. Longitudinal LTPA and TV-time trajectories and their interactions were analyzed with mixture modeling. Results: Three LTPA (persistently highly active, 15.8%; persistently moderately active, 60.8%; and persistently low active, 23.5%) and 4 TV time (consistently low, 38.6%; consistently moderate, 48.2%; consistently high, 11.7%; and consistently very high, 1.5%) trajectory classes were identified. Persistently highly active women had a lower probability of consistently high TV time than persistently low-active women (P = .02), whereas men who were persistently highly active had a higher probability of consistently moderate TV time and a lower probability of consistently low TV time than their persistently low-active counterparts (P = .03 and P = .01, respectively). Conclusions: Maintaining high LTPA levels were accompanied by less TV over time in women, but not in men. The associations were partially explained by education, body mass index, and smoking.