Over the past decade, researchers have faced increasing pressure to bridge the gap between the generation of new knowledge and the translation of that knowledge into applications and products that can benefit society. SCI Action Canada is an example of a community-university partnership approach to bridging the research generation-knowledge translation gap. It is an alliance of 30 community-based organizations and university-based researchers working together to increase physical activity participation among people living with a spinal cord injury (SCI). This paper provides an overview of activities undertaken by SCI Action Canada, presented within the framework of key principles of effective knowledge translation. Recommendations are made for the cultivation of successful community-university partnerships to develop, evaluate, and implement physical activity innovations.
Kathleen A. Martin and Diane Mack
Kathleen A. Martin and Heather A. Hausenblas
Researchers have questioned aerobic instructors’ status as healthy role models by suggesting that they are excessive exercisers who may be at risk for developing eating disorders. To address this issue, 286 female aerobic instructors (mean age = 34.1) completed the Commitment to Exercise Scale (CES) and the Bulimia (B), Body Dissatisfaction (BD), and Drive for Thinness (DT) subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Instructors scored low on the CES (M = 62.24) relative to other high-exercising populations. Scores on the EDI-2 subscales were also low compared to published norms (M = .78, 7.8, and 3.2 for B, BD, and DT, respectively). Simple correlations revealed that the CES was related to all three EDI-2 subscales (rs ranged from .18 to .30; ps < .01). Discussion focuses on factors that may account for instructors’ healthy attitudes toward exercise and eating, and practical implications for sport psychologists who work with fitness instructors.
Heather A. Hausenblas and Kathleen A. Martin
Social physique anxiety (SPA) is a subtype of social anxiety that stems from self-presentational concerns about the appearance of one’s physique. The purpose of the present study was to examine correlates of SPA among individuals who instruct in a high social evaluation setting. Data from 286 female aerobic instructors (M age = 34.11) were collected on SPA, age, body mass index (BMI), exposure to the exercise setting (number of years spent instructing and participating in aerobic classes), and motive for instructing (leadership, affect enhancement, self-presentational). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that BMI, age, and motive for instructing accounted for 25% of the variance in SPAS scores, F(6, 223) = 12.11, p < .0001. Women who instructed for self-presentational motives had significantly higher SPA compared to women who instructed for leadership and affect enhancement motives. Contrary to hypothesis, the amount of exposure to the aerobic exercise setting was unrelated to SPA. Based on this result, we suggest that repeated exposure to a physique salient environment does not diminish women’s self-presentational concerns about their bodies.
Lawrence R. Brawley and Kathleen A. Martin
Over the past three decades, an interface has developed between sport and social psychology, characterized primarily by commonly utilized concepts and theories. The list of social psychological benefits to sport psychology is lengthy and includes theory, hypotheses, research paradigms, general independent and dependent variables, methods, and measures. In this paper, the following areas of sport research are used to illustrate the interface between sport and social psychology: (a) social facilitation and cohesion as two social influence phenomena, (b) anxiety and goal orientations as personality moderators of social behavior, and (c) self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes as social cognitions relevant to motivated behavior. Each of these areas are discussed in terms of social psychology’s impact on its development as a line of research in sport and in terms of the recent contributions each has made in return to social psychology. The general nature of the interface of social and sport psychology is also discussed.
Kathleen A. Martin and Adrienne R. Sinden
This study examined exercise-adherence rates and their predictors across 21 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving older adults (age ≥ 55 years). On average, participants completed 78% of their prescribed exercise bouts. Adherence tended to be greater in strength- and flexibility-exercise training programs (M = 87%) than in aerobic-exercise training programs (M = 75%). The best adherers were individuals who were fitter at baseline, had a history of a physically active lifestyle, were nonsmokers, and had higher exercise self-efficacy. Different variables predicted adherence (a) at different time points in a RCT. (b) to different types of exercise, and (c) to different aspects of the exercise prescription (i.e., frequency, intensity, and duration). The findings suggest that older adults might be more adherent to exercise prescriptions than younger adults are. There is also a need for more theory-based research to examine predictors of adherence to various aspects of the exercise prescription.
Elisa C. Murru and Kathleen A. Martin Ginis
This experiment examined the effects of a possible selves intervention on self-regulatory efficacy and exercise behavior among 19 men and 61 women (M age = 21.43 years, SD = 3.28) who reported exercising fewer than 3 times per week. Participants were randomly assigned to a control condition, a hoped-for possible selves intervention condition, or a feared possible selves intervention condition. The hoped-for and feared possible selves interventions required participants to imagine themselves in the future as either healthy, regular exercisers or as unhealthy, inactive individuals, respectively. Participants in the control condition completed a quiz about physical activity. Measures of self-regulatory efficacy (scheduling, planning, goal setting, and barrier self-efficacy) were taken immediately before and after the intervention. Participants who received either possible selves intervention reported greater exercise behavior 4 weeks and 8 weeks postintervention than participants in the control group. Planning self-efficacy partially mediated the effects of the possible selves intervention on exercise behavior over the first 4 weeks of the study. These findings highlight the effectiveness of possible selves interventions for increasing exercise behavior and the role of self-regulatory processes for explaining such effects.
Kathleen A. Martin and Craig R. Hall
It was hypothesized that subjects who used mental imagery would spend more time practicing a golf putting task and would have higher task specific self-efficacy than control subjects. Thirty-nine absolute beginner golfers were randomly assigned to either an imagery treatment condition (performance plus outcome imagery or performance imagery) or a no imagery (control) condition. During the first three sessions all subjects were taught how to putt a golf ball. Imagery treatment subjects also participated in an imagery training program designed specifically for the golf putting task. For the final three sessions, subjects were told that the emphasis of the study was on performance. Subjects in the performance imagery group spent significantly more time practicing the golf putting task than subjects in the control group. Subjects who used imagery also set higher goals for themselves, had more realistic self-expectations, and adhered more to their training programs outside of the laboratory.
Kendra R. Todd and Kathleen A. Martin Ginis
Given profound physical, psychosocial, and environmental barriers to physical activity (PA), people living with spinal cord injury (SCI) are less active than virtually every other segment of the population. Nevertheless, people with SCI are not universally “sedentary.” Many people with SCI live physically active lives, and behavioral interventions have proven effective at increasing and maintaining both PA and fitness. This paper discusses PA and inactivity in the SCI population and reviews the who, what, and how of effective SCI PA-enhancing interventions. The authors conclude with 3 recommendations for increasing PA in other low-active populations: Know your audience and the issues, develop audience-specific messages and tailored interventions, and use behavior-change theory to develop messages and interventions.
Tara-Lyn Elston and Kathleen A. Martin Ginis
This experiment compared the effects of self-set versus assigned goals on exercisers’ (N = 50, M age = 23.6) self-efficacy to perform a novel grip-strength task. After their first task attempt, all participants received the same bogus performance feedback. Participants in the self-set condition then set their own goal for their second attempt, whereas those in the assigned condition were given the goal of squeezing 3 more pounds. The assigned condition reported higher task-self efficacy (M = 58.7) than the self-set condition (M = 42.4) prior to their second task attempt (p = .02). These findings suggest that goals assigned by an authority figure can increase self-confidence in beginner exercisers.