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The Relationship Between Self-Regulatory Efficacy and Physical Activity in Adolescents With a Caveat: A Cross-Lag Design Examining Weather

Kathleen S. Wilson and Kevin S. Spink

Purpose: The use of self-efficacy to predict physical activity has a long history. However, this relationship is complex, as self-efficacy is thought to influence and be influenced by physical activity. The directionality of the self-regulatory efficacy (SRE) and physical activity relationship was examined using a cross-lagged design. A secondary purpose was to examine these relationships across differing weather conditions. Methods: Canadian adolescents (N = 337; aged between 13 and 18 years) completed the physical activity and SRE measures 4 times during a school year. Structural equation modeling was used to perform a cross-lag analysis. Results: The relationships between physical activity and SRE appeared to be weather dependent. During a more challenging weather period (eg, cold weather), the relationship between physical activity and SRE was bidirectional. However, no relationship emerged when the 2 constructs were assessed during a more optimal weather period (eg, warm weather). Conclusions: Some support has been provided for the bidirectional nature of the relationship between physical activity and SRE. The relationship appeared to be qualified by climate considerations, suggesting that future research examine how weather may relate not just to physical activity but also to the correlates of physical activity.

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Group Norms in Youth Sport: Role of Personal and Social Factors

Mark W. Bruner, Jeremie M. Carreau, Kathleen S. Wilson, and Michael Penney

The purpose of this study was to investigate youth athletes’ perceptions of group norms for competition, practice, and social setting contexts in relation to personal and social factors. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine the interactions of the personal and situation factors on perceptions of group norms. Participants included 424 athletes from 35 high school sport teams who completed a survey assessing team norms in competition, practice, and social settings. Multilevel analysis results revealed differences in group norms by gender as well as gender by team tenure and gender by sport type interactions. Female teams held higher perceptions of norms for competition, practice, and social settings than male teams. Interactions between gender and team tenure and gender and sport type revealed significant differences in practice norms. No differences were found in norms by group size. The findings suggest that examining the characteristics of the team members (i.e., gender, team tenure) and team (i.e., type of sport) may enhance our understanding of group norms in a youth sport setting.

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Drop Landing Biomechanics in Individuals With and Without a Concussion History

Eric J. Shumski, Tricia M. Kasamatsu, Kathleen S. Wilson, and Derek N. Pamukoff

Research has identified an increased risk of lower extremity injury postconcussion, which may be due to aberrant biomechanics during dynamic tasks. The purpose of this study was to compare the drop landing biomechanics between individuals with and without a concussion history. Twenty-five individuals with and 25 without a concussion history were matched on age (±3 y), sex, and body mass index (±1 kg/m2). Three-dimensional landing biomechanics were recorded to obtain dependent variables (peak vertical ground reaction force, loading rate, knee flexion angle and external moment, knee abduction angle and external moment, and knee flexion and abduction angle at ground contact). A 1-way multivariate analysis of variance compared outcomes between groups. There was no difference in drop landing biomechanics between individuals with and without a concussion history (F 10,39 = 0.460, P = .877, Wilk Λ = .918). There was an effect of time since concussion on knee flexion characteristics. Time since most recent concussion explained a significant amount of variation in both peak (ΔR 2 = .177, β = −0.305, ΔP = .046) and initial ground contact (ΔR 2 = .292, β = −0.204, ΔP = .008) knee flexion angle after covarying for sex and body mass index. Therefore, time since concussion should be considered when evaluating biomechanical patterns.

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Athletes’ Coping With the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Role of Self-Compassion and Cognitive Appraisal

Brittney B. Aceron, Kathleen S. Wilson, Matt D. Hoffmann, and Lenny Wiersma

Coping with the COVID-19 pandemic had implications for athletes’ mental well-being. This mixed-methods study examined the influence of self-compassion on athletes’ coping during the pandemic through the mediator of cognitive appraisal. The prospective design involved 90 athletes completing two online surveys 1 week apart measuring self-compassion, cognitive appraisal, and coping strategies. The PROCESS macro was used for the mediation analysis. A qualitative thematic analysis was used to explore athletes’ responses to the pandemic during the second survey. Self-compassion had an indirect negative effect on avoidance-focused coping by appraising the pandemic as less of a threat (95% confidence interval [−0.20, −0.001]) and had a total effect on emotion-focused coping (95% confidence interval [0.02, 0.40]). Based on the thematic analysis, athletes described many raw emotions and a variety of coping strategies during the pandemic. Self-compassion demonstrated promising benefits to athletes who dealt with the challenging situation of the pandemic.

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Mental Fatigue Uniquely Influences Drop Landing Biomechanics for Individuals With a Concussion History

Eric J. Shumski, Tricia M. Kasamatsu, Kathleen S. Wilson, and Derek N. Pamukoff

Context: Induced mental fatigue negatively impacts sport performance and neurocognition. However, it is unclear how induced mental fatigue influences landing biomechanics. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of mental fatigue on drop landing biomechanics in individuals with and without a concussion history. Design: Crossover design. Methods: Forty-eight (24 per group) recreationally active individuals were matched on age (±3 y), sex, and body mass index (±1 kg/m2). All participants completed an experimental (30-min Stroop task) and control (30-min reading magazines) intervention on separate days separated by a minimum of 24 hours. Drop landings were performed before and after both interventions. Outcomes included peak vertical ground reaction force (vGRF), vertical loading rate (VLR), knee flexion angle, knee abduction angle, external knee flexion moment, external knee abduction moment, and initial ground contact knee flexion and knee abduction angles. Separate 2 (group) × 2 (intervention) between-within analyses of covariance compared drop landing outcomes. Each group’s average pre-Stroop and premagazine outcomes were covariates. Results: There was a significant interaction for vGRF (P = .033, η p 2 = .097 ) and VLR (P = .0497, η p 2 = .083 ). The vGRF simple effects were not statistically significantly (P range = .052–.325). However, individuals with a concussion history displayed a medium effect size for greater vGRF post-Stroop compared with their own postmagazine vGRF (mean difference (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.163 (–0.002 to 0.327) bodyweight (BW), p =.052, η p 2 = .081 . In contrast, the control group displayed a small effect size (mean difference [95% CI] = 0.095 [–0.069 to 0.259] BW, p =.251, η p 2 = .029 ). Individuals with a concussion history displayed greater VLR post-Stroop compared with controls (mean difference [95% CI], 26.29 [6.19 to 46.40] BW/s, P = .012, η p 2 = .134 ) and their own postmagazine values (mean difference [95% CI] = 32.61 [7.80 to 57.42] BW/s, p =.011, η p 2 = .135 ). Conclusion: Mental fatigue leads to greater VLR for individuals with a concussion history. Athletic competition and activities of daily living can increase mental fatigue. Training programs may seek to teach mental fatigue reducing strategies to athletes with a concussion history.

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Improved Motor Proficiency and Quality of Life in Youth With Prader–Willi Syndrome and Obesity 6 Months After Completing a Parent-Led, Game-Based Intervention

Daniela A. Rubin, Kathleen S. Wilson, Jared M. Tucker, Diobel M. Castner, Marilyn C. Dumont-Driscoll, and Debra J. Rose

Purpose: To determine changes and potential differences in physical activity (PA), gross motor proficiency (MP), and health parameters after a 6-month follow-up (FU) period following participation in a parent-led PA intervention in youth with or without Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS). Methods: About 42 youth with PWS and 65 youth without PWS but with obesity (body fat percentage >95th percentile for age and sex), aged 8–16 years, participated. The intervention included preplanned PA sessions containing playground and console-based video games scheduled 4 days per week for 24 weeks. Families received training and curriculum materials. PA (accelerometry), MP (Bruininks–Oseretsky Test of MP), and health-related quality of life were obtained before (PRE), after completing the intervention (POST), and at FU. Results: There were no significant changes in PA at any time point. At FU and POST, participants showed higher bilateral coordination (PRE = 9.3 [0.4], POST = 11.7 [0.5], and FU = 11.1 [0.6]); speed and agility (PRE = 9.2 [0.4], POST = 10.8 [0.4], and FU = 11.5 [0.5]); and strength (PRE = 8.0 [0.3], POST = 9.2 [0.3], and FU = 9.2 [0.3]) than at PRE. At FU (80.3 [2.1]) and POST (79.8 [1.7]), youth without PWS showed higher health-related quality of life than PRE (75.0 [1.8]). Conclusion: The improvements in MP and health-related quality of life at FU suggest long-term durability of intervention outcomes.

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The Digest

Christopher Shields, Jennifer Brunet, Lori Dithurbide, Shilpa Dogra, Kim Gammage, Mary Jung, Lindsay Kipp, Tara-Leigh McHugh, Simon Sebire, Katherine Tamminen, and Kathleen S. Wilson