The purpose of this study was to investigate youth athletes’ perceptions of group norms for competition, practice, and social setting contexts in relation to personal and social factors. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine the interactions of the personal and situation factors on perceptions of group norms. Participants included 424 athletes from 35 high school sport teams who completed a survey assessing team norms in competition, practice, and social settings. Multilevel analysis results revealed differences in group norms by gender as well as gender by team tenure and gender by sport type interactions. Female teams held higher perceptions of norms for competition, practice, and social settings than male teams. Interactions between gender and team tenure and gender and sport type revealed significant differences in practice norms. No differences were found in norms by group size. The findings suggest that examining the characteristics of the team members (i.e., gender, team tenure) and team (i.e., type of sport) may enhance our understanding of group norms in a youth sport setting.
Mark W. Bruner, Jeremie M. Carreau, Kathleen S. Wilson and Michael Penney
Erin Gemmill, Constance M. Bayles, Kathleen McTigue, William Satariano, Ravi Sharma and John W. Wilson
Adherence to protocols of accelerometer use by participants of research studies is crucial to ensure the most accurate measure of their physical activity.
We used data from a study of 201 individuals 65 years of age and older to examine whether aging effects on physical and cognitive health limit the ability of an older adult to be adherent to an accelerometer protocol.
A comparison of participants who met the adherent person criteria with those who did not showed that the percentage of participants whose income is $20,000 or greater, the percentage of participants who reported white race, and the mean number of school grades completed were significantly different between the 2 groups. Logistic regression analyses showed that the best multivariate model to predict being a valid person included Instrumental Activities of Daily Living score, while the best multivariate model to predict being an adherent person included Modified Guralnik Lower Body Score and Mini-Mental State Examination Score.
This study found that certain measures of physical and cognitive functioning were the best predictors of adherence to an accelerometer protocol among older adults.