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  • Author: Kathryn Schmitz x
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Ann Forsyth, J. Michael Oakes and Kathryn H. Schmitz

Background:

The Twin Cities Walking Study measured the associations of built environment versus socioeconomic and psychosocial variables with total physical activity and walking for 716 adults.

Methods:

This article reports on the test–retest reliability of the survey portion of the study. To test the reliability of the study measures, 158 respondents completed measures twice within 1 to 4 weeks. Agreement between participants’ responses was measured using Pearson r and Spearman rho, and kappa statistics.

Results:

Demographic questions are highly reliable (R > .8). Questions about environmental and social features are typically less reliable (rho range = 0.42– 0.91). Reliability of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (last 7 days version) was low (rho = 0.15 for total activity).

Conclusions:

Much of the survey has acceptable-to-good reliability. The low test–retest reliability points to potential limitations of using a single administration of the IPAQ to characterize habitual physical activity. Implications for sound inference are accordingly complicated.

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Andrea Yukie Arikawa, Maureen O’Dougherty and Kathryn H. Schmitz

Background:

The factors influencing exercise adherence are not well characterized in women in their pre-menopausal years.

Methods:

The purpose of this report is to provide an analysis of demographic factors contributing to women’s adherence to a 2-year twice-weekly weight training intervention. Overweight and obese premenopausal women were randomized to a control or intervention group.

Results:

During the supervised period of the intervention (months 1 to 4), adherence was significantly lower among those with a higher level of education and among unmarried women with children aged 6 to 12 compared with married women without children (F = 4.83, P = .004). Overall adherence during the supervised and unsupervised periods was 95.4% and 64.5%, respectively (unadjusted mean). During year 1, white women were significantly more adherent to the intervention (70.3%) than women of color (48.6%). Nonmarried women with children 13 years or older were significantly less adherent than married women with children 5 years or younger (36.3% versus 75.4%, respectively, P < .007). Overall adherence was 51.4% in year 2.

Conclusions:

Interventions and public health recommendations need to further consider how to engage communities to provide effective support for long-term adherence to fitness center based exercise of all women, regardless of demographics.

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Shirley M. Bluethmann, Wayne Foo, Renate M. Winkels, Scherezade K. Mama and Kathryn H. Schmitz

Purpose: (a) To describe the relationship of multimorbidity and physical activity (PA) in cancer survivors and (b) to explore perceived disability and PA in middle-aged and older survivors. Methods: The authors analyzed the data from cancer survivors (N = 566), identified using the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, who responded to a Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System-derived questionnaire. They created age groups (e.g., 45–54 years, 55–64 years, 65–74 years, and 75 years and older) and calculated a composite score of eight common comorbidities (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease) to assess multimorbidity. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association of demographic and behavioral/clinical risk factors (e.g., multimorbidity, perceived disability, body mass index) with PA. Results: Most respondents were females (62%), older (mean age = 68 years) and represented diverse cancer sites, including breast (n = 132), colorectal (n = 102), gynecologic (n = 106), prostate (n = 111), and lung (n = 80). PA participation was mixed; 44% of survivors reported achieving >150 min of aerobic PA, but half of lung and 37% of gynecologic survivors reported no PA (0 min/week). Higher multimorbidity (odds ratio = 0.82, confidence  interval [0.69, 0.98], p < .05), obesity (odds ratio = 0.51, confidence  interval [0.30, 0.86], p < .05), and perceived disability (odds ratio = 0.49, confidence  interval [0.32, 0.77], p < .001) were negatively associated with PA participation. Strength training was suboptimal across all survivors. Conclusion: Most older survivors experienced comorbid conditions, and this was associated with less PA. Survivors who perceived themselves as disabled or who were obese were half as likely as others to participate in PA. This suggests an increasing need to address both physical and psychological limitations in designing PA interventions for real-world needs. Exercise interventions that address the unique needs of older survivors for multimorbidity, obesity, and perceived disability may strengthen opportunities for PA.

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Ann Forsyth, Kathryn H. Schmitz, Michael Oakes, Jason Zimmerman and Joel Koepp

Background:

Interdisciplinary research regarding how the built environment influences physical activity has recently increased. Many research projects conducted jointly by public health and environmental design professionals are using geographic information systems (GIS) to objectively measure the built environment. Numerous methodological issues remain, however, and environmental measurements have not been well documented with accepted, common definitions of valid, reliable variables.

Methods:

This paper proposes how to create and document standardized definitions for measures of environmental variables using GIS with the ultimate goal of developing reliable, valid measures. Inherent problems with software and data that hamper environmental measurement can be offset by protocols combining clear conceptual bases with detailed measurement instructions.

Results:

Examples demonstrate how protocols can more clearly translate concepts into specific measurement.

Conclusions:

This paper provides a model for developing protocols to allow high quality comparative research on relationships between the environment and physical activity and other outcomes of public health interest.

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John R. Sirard, Ann Forsyth, J. Michael Oakes and Kathryn H. Schmitz

Background:

The purpose of this study was to determine 1) the test-retest reliability of adult accelerometer-measured physical activity, and 2) how data processing decisions affect physical activity levels and test-retest reliability.

Methods:

143 people wore the ActiGraph accelerometer for 2 7-day periods, 1 to 4 weeks apart. Five algorithms, varying nonwear criteria (20 vs. 60 min of 0 counts) and minimum wear requirements (6 vs. 10 hrs/day for ≥ 4 days) and a separate algorithm requiring ≥ 3 counts per min and ≥ 2 hours per day, were used to process the accelerometer data.

Results:

Processing the accelerometer data with different algorithms resulted in different levels of counts per day, sedentary, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Reliability correlations were very good to excellent (ICC = 0.70−0.90) for almost all algorithms and there were no significant differences between physical activity measures at Time 1 and Time 2.

Conclusions:

This paper presents the first assessment of test-retest reliability of the Actigraph over separate administrations in free-living subjects. The ActiGraph was highly reliable in measuring activity over a 7-day period in natural settings but data were sensitive to the algorithms used to process them.

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Shujun Gao, Lisa Harnack, Kathryn Schmitz, Janet Fulton, Leslie Lytle, Pamela Van Coevering and David R. Jacobs Jr.

Background:

We assessed the validity and reliability of a modified Godin-Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire in youth in grades 6 through 8.

Methods:

The questionnaire was completed by 250 children twice at a 1 wk interval to assess reliability. After the second questionnaire administration the children wore an accelerometer for 7 d (criterion measure).

Results:

Pearson correlations between the first and second reports of frequency of participation in strenuous and moderate physical activity were 0.68 and 0.51, respectively. Self-reported participation in strenuous activity was weakly correlated with strenuous activity as measured by accelerometer (r = 0.23, P = 0.01). A weak non-significant correlation was found between reported versus measured engagement in moderate activity (r = 0.13, P = 0.07).

Conclusion:

Findings suggest the questionnaire evaluated in this study may be of very limited use for assessing children’s physical activity.

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JoAnn Kuo, Kathryn H. Schmitz, Kelly R. Evenson, Thomas L. McKenzie, Jared B. Jobe, Ariane L. Rung, Joel Gittelsohn and Russell R. Pate

Background:

With limited opportunities for physical activity during school hours, it is important to understand the contexts of physical activities done outside of school time. Given the importance of physical and social aspects of environments, the purpose of this study was to describe where and with whom girls participate in physical activities outside of school.

Methods:

Participants were 1925 sixth-grade girls in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG). At baseline, they completed a 3-day physical activity recall (3DPAR), reporting the main activity performed during 30-minute intervals and the physical and social contexts of physical activities.

Results:

The most frequently reported physical activities done outside of school time were house chores, walking (for transportation or exercise), dance, basketball, playing with younger children, and running or jogging. The most common location for these activities was at home or in the neighborhood. With the exception of household chores, these activities were typically done with at least one other person.

Conclusions:

Interventions that promote physical activities that can be done at or around home or developing supportive social networks for physical activity would be consistent with the current physical activity contexts of adolescent girls.