The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of Mosston and Ashworth’s (1986) practice (Style B) and inclusion (Style E) styles of teaching or class composition on college students’ achievement of selected physical education outcomes. Achievement was measured by the use of a soccer-ball-juggle test and a written knowledge test. One hundred and twenty college students were pretested on the soccer-ball juggle. Students who scored in the upper and lower 25% were placed in a group labeled heterogeneous; students scoring in the middle 50% were placed in a group labeled homogeneous. Subsequent to the pretest, a 30-minute lesson on soccer-ball juggling was provided to students by members of the college physical education staff using the assigned teaching style, followed by the posttest and the written knowledge test. All teaching was observed and coded by the researcher to determine teacher and student behavior. Results on soccer-ball juggling yielded significant gains between pretest and posttest for both styles; a retention test verified improvement was retained in both styles. No significant differences between teaching style or class composition were uncovered on the motor task. However, significant differences on the written knowledge test were revealed: Students in Style E produced higher scores than students in Style B.
Karen K. Block and Keith D. Beckett
Six specialists and seven nonspecialist practicing physical educators were asked to describe the skill of throwing. Verbal protocols were analyzed in terms of length, organization (number and quality of connections), and elaborateness (grain size and vocabulary used) of the descriptions, and in terms of ideas about movement control. Results showed that specialists demonstrated more knowledge about the skill in that their protocols were longer. However, specialists’ knowledge was not necessarily more organized or elaborate (number and quality of connectors, nor vocabulary, was different). Research that defines effective strategies for describing skill can make important contributions to teacher education.
Scott P. McLean, Michael J. Holthe, Peter F. Vint, Keith D. Beckett, and Richard N. Hinrichs
Ten male collegiate swimmers (age = 20.2 ± 1.4 years, height = 184.6 ± 5.8 cm, mass = 82.9 ± 9.3 kg) performed 3 swimming relay step starts, which incorporated a one or two-step approach, and a no-step relay start. Time to 10 m was not significantly shorter between step and no-step starts. A double-step start increased horizontal takeoff velocity by 0.2 m/s. A single-step together start decreased vertical takeoff velocity by 0.2 m/s but increased takeoff height by 0.16 m. Subjects were more upright at takeoff by 4°, 2°, and 5° in the double-step, single-step apart, and single-step together starts, respectively, than in the no-step start. Entry angle was steeper by 2°, entry orientation was steeper by 3°, and entry vertical velocity was faster by 0.3 m/s in the single-step together start. Restricting step length by 50% had little effect on step starts with the exceptions that horizontal velocity was significantly reduced by 0.1 m/s in the double-step start and vertical takeoff velocity was increased by 0.2 m/s in the single-step together start. These data suggested that step starts offered some performance improvements over the no-step start, but these improvements were not widespread and, in the case of the double-step start, were dependent on the ability to take longer steps.