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Keith B. Wheeler and Keith A. Garleb

The use of gamma-oryzanol and phytosterols is gaining popularity among various athletic populations. These compounds are being consumed in the belief that they elicit anabolic effects ranging from increased testosterone production and release to stimulating human growth hormone release. However, published scientific studies suggest that these compounds are poorly absorbed. Furthermore, animal studies indicate that when these compounds are injected subcutaneously or intravenously, they induce antianabolic or catabolic activity. Normally, less than 5% of orally consumed phytosterols are absorbed from the Intestinal tract, with the majority being excreted in the feces. Intravenous or subcutaneous injections of gamma-oryzanol in rats have been shown to suppress luteinizing hormone release, reduce growth hormone synthesis and release, and increase release of the catecholamines, dopamine and norepinephrine, in the brain. Although it hasn't been directly measured, this metabolic milieu, if accurate, may actually reduce testosterone production.

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Manuel Lugo, William M. Sherman, Gregory S. Wimer and Keith Garleb

This study examined the effects of consuming the same amount of carbohydrate in solid form, liquid form, or both on metabolic responses during 2 hrs of cycling at 70% peak VO2 and on cycling time-trial performance. Subjects consumed 0.4 g carbohydrate/kg body mass before and every 30 min during exercise. The liquid was a 7% carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage and the solid was a sports bar (1171 kJ) in which 76%, 18%, and 6% of total energy was derived from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, respectively. Blood obtained at baseline, before exercise, and every 30 min was analyzed for glucose, insulin, lactate, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and plasma volume. There were no differences among the treatments for the blood parameters. Total carbohydrate oxidation and time-trial performance were also similar among treatments. Under thermoneutral conditions with equal liquid inges-tion, the metabolic and performance responses are similar when consuming carbohydrate as a liquid, solid, or in combination during prolonged, moderate intensity cycling.