Kellie C. Huxel Bliven and Kelsey J. Picha
Alison R. Snyder Valier, Kelsey J. Picha, and Deanne R. Fay
This study describes the experiences of over 500 school-based athletic trainers (ATs) and their familiarity, knowledge, comfort, and confidence working with athletes with a disability. ATs’ experiences in managing the health care of school-based athletes with a physical disability are unknown. Half of the respondents indicated experience providing services to these athletes, while 70% indicated little to no specific training/education. About half of the ATs reported being comfortable and confident in managing the care of athletes with a physical disability, while a quarter reported being knowledgeable. Findings suggest that experience helps provide ATs with comfort and confidence in caring for these athletes, but educational opportunities are still needed.
Michelle L. Weber, Kelsey J. Picha, and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod
Calcaneal apophysitis, or Sever's disease, is common among physically active youth between the ages of 8-15. This condition is related to skeletal growth during maturation and relief often comes once growth is complete. However, it is not feasible to limit participation in physical activity until growth ceases; therefore, it is important to determine effective interventions to regulate pain while continuing participation. A search of the literature yielded nine studies that met the inclusion criteria and were included for data analysis. Within these publications, many treatment methods were suggested, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), taping, orthoses, heel lifts, stretching, activity modification, and ice. However, few of the treatment options were compared with a control group. Analysis revealed that clinicians should provide treatments with caution when treating patients suffering from Sever's disease, understanding that strong evidence is not supportive of one treatment option alone. Data are limited for individual treatments related to calcaneal apophysitis and more research in this area is warranted. Clinicians should work with patients on an individual basis to determine if one form of treatment provides a reduction of pain and allows that patient to continue with activity.
Kelsey J. Picha, Michelle L. Weber, and Cailee E. Welch
Edited by Michael G. Dolan
Kate N. Jochimsen, Carl G. Mattacola, Brian Noehren, Kelsey J. Picha, Stephen T. Duncan, and Cale A. Jacobs
Context: Femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) is a painfully debilitating hip condition disproportionately affecting active individuals. Mental health disorders are an important determinant of treatment outcomes for individuals with FAIS. Self-efficacy, kinesiophobia, and pain catastrophizing are psychosocial factors that have been linked to inferior outcomes for a variety of orthopedic conditions. However, these psychosocial factors and their relationships with mental health disorders, pain, and function have not been examined in individuals with FAIS. Objective: (1) To examine relationships between self-efficacy, kinesiophobia, pain catastrophizing, pain, and function in patients with FAIS and (2) to determine if these variables differ between patients with and without a self-reported depression and/or anxiety. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: University health center. Participants: Fifty-one individuals with FAIS (42 females/9 males; age 35.7 [11.6] y; body mass index 27.1 [4.9] kg/m2). Main Outcome Measures: Participants completed the Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, visual analog scale for hip pain at rest and during activity, and the 12-item International Hip Outcome Tool. Self-reported depression and/or anxiety were recorded. The relationships between psychosocial factors, pain, and function were examined using Spearman rank-order correlations. Independent t tests and Mann–Whitney U tests were used to evaluate the effect of self-reported depression and/or anxiety on psychosocial factors, pain and function. Results: The 12-item International Hip Outcome Tool was correlated with pain during activity (ρ = −.57, P ≤ .001), Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (ρ = −.52, P ≤ .001), and Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (ρ = .71, P ≤ .001). The Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire was also correlated with pain at rest (ρ = −.43, P = .002) and pain during activity (ρ = −.46, P = .001). Individuals with self-reported depression and/or anxiety (18/51; 35.3%) had worse self-efficacy and pain catastrophizing (P ≤ .01). Conclusion: Self-reported depression and/or anxiety, low self-efficacy, and high kinesiophobia were associated with more hip pain and worse function for patients with FAIS. These findings warrant further examination including psychosocial treatment strategies to improve the likelihood of a successful clinical outcome for this at-risk population.