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Ken R. Lodewyk

Purpose: Personality traits such as honesty-humility, emotionality, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience (HEXACO) have been linked to numerous adaptive outcomes in academic, sport, and physical activity settings; yet little if any such research has been conducted with physical education (PE) students. The aim of this study was to investigate relations between the HEXACO trait personality dimensions and five noteworthy outcomes in PE, namely task and ego goal orientation, importance-value, intention to enroll, and grade. Method: Survey data were gathered from 316 ninth and tenth-grade PE students. Results: Personality collectively predicted each of the outcomes (p < .001). Conclusion: Students with certain personalities—particularly those lower in extraversion—might be more susceptible to some less favorable outcomes in secondary PE. To better differentiate instruction in PE, there may be some merit in increasing physical educator awareness of personality traits and how they might compromise some adaptive outcomes in PE.

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Ken Lodewyk and Lauren McNamara

Purpose: This study assessed students’ levels and associations between recess enjoyment, positive affect, environmental factors, and activity preferences overall and as a function of gender and developmental level. Methods: An online survey was used to gather data from 464 students in Grades 4–8 from nine elementary schools in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Results: When the variance explained by gender and developmental level was controlled for in this study, both recess environment and activity preferences accounted for a significant portion of the variability related to affect and enjoyment of recess. Having equipment and space and preference for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, organizing and playing games, and free time predicted both affect and enjoyment. Conclusion: These and other findings enable educators to progress in understanding how they might adjust approaches to recess to facilitate more enjoyment and positive affect in elementary school students especially by gender and developmental level.

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Zan Gao, Ken R. Lodewyk, and Tao Zhang

This study uncovers the predictive relationship of middle school students’ ability beliefs (self-efficacy and expectancy-related beliefs) and incentives (outcome expectancy, importance, interest, and usefulness) to intention, cardiovascular fitness, and teacher-rated effort in physical education. Participants (N = 252; 118 boys, 134 girls) completed questionnaires assessing their ability beliefs, incentives, and intention for future participation in physical education, and then had their cardiovascular fitness assessed with the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test. Students’ effort in class was rated by their respective physical education teachers. Correlation analysis yielded significantly positive relationships between ability beliefs and incentives. Regression results revealed that ability beliefs, importance, interest, and usefulness significantly predicted intention for future participation. Ability beliefs also emerged as significant predictors of PACER test scores whereas self-efficacy was the only predictor of teacher-rated effort. Implications for educational practice are discussed.

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Ken R. Lodewyk and Colin M. Pybus

Several studies have reported declining student enrolment rates in optional physical education. This study—incorporating constructs from social cognitive, self-determination, and body image theory—investigated factors that might be influential to this trend. Surveys were administered to 227 tenth-grade students from five schools in one school district of Ontario, Canada. MANOVA results revealed a significant main effect difference in variables by gender and enrollment group but not by the interaction. Enrollees had statistically higher motivation (domain value, self-efficacy, perceived autonomy support, and autonomous regulation), PE grade, and weekly levels of exercise beyond physical education. Qualitatively, nonenrollees reported more social concerns, less domain value, and disliked activities like fitness training, health content, and competition. Females had statistically higher body size discrepancy and qualitatively more domain value and concern about the social setting and the type of activities. Implications for the retention of high school physical education students are discussed.

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James Mandigo, Ken Lodewyk, and Jay Tredway

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of an 8-week after-school intramural program that adopted a Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) approach to facilitate the development of elementary-school-aged children physical literacy. Methods: Using Physical and Health Education Canada’s Passport for Life tool, 22 participants took part in a battery of assessments consistent with characteristics of physical literacy. These measures were (a) active participation, (b) living skills, (c) fitness skills, and (d) movement skills. Each category of assessment included three submeasures for a total of 12 indicators of physical literacy. Participants were assessed at the beginning of the PlaySport Intramural Program and then 8 weeks later following participation in a series of after-school TGfU lessons designed using the PlaySport program. Results: Of the 12 indicators of physical literacy, the majority of participants reported higher scores at the end program for 10 of the indicators. Significant (p < .004) improvements were seen in balance and stability skills, cardiovascular endurance, participation in diverse environments, and interest in participating in diverse activities. No improvements were seen in kicking skills and interacting with others. Discussion/Conclusion: These results provide support for the hypothesis that the use of pedagogical approaches such as TGfU can be effective at facilitating certain components of children’s development of physical literacy.

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Tim Fletcher, Ken Lodewyk, Katie Glover, and Sandra Albione

Purpose: To examine the experiences of a cohort of health and physical education teachers and consultants who were learning to become instructional coaches. Methods: Three surveys and three focus groups were administered to 14 participants over 9 months to consider their experiences of learning to become instructional coaches. Concepts from expectancy-value theory guided analyses of both quantitative and qualitative data. Results: Participants reported positive experiences learning to become instructional coaches. Understanding and importance-utility value increased significantly between the administration of initial and end surveys. Focus group data generally supported quantitative findings while enabling more specific insights to be gained, particularly regarding specific moments of participants’ learning that led to a shift in thinking or practice. Conclusions: Participants valued their experiences learning to become instructional coaches and identified the instructional coaching model as a powerful form of job-embedded professional learning based on teachers’ context-specific needs.

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Ken R. Lodewyk, Kimberley L. Gammage, and Philip J. Sullivan

Increasing dropout rates in senior high school physical education, particularly among females, and unhealthy activity and obesity levels in youth have led to recommendations to assess potential contributing factors in physical education participation. Drawing from gender, body image, and social-cognitive theory, this study investigated relations between body size discrepancy, self-efficacy, test anxiety, and achievement in 316 high school physical education students. Gender differences were noted in body size discrepancy (females reported the desire to have a smaller body). Specifically in females, body size discrepancy predicted test anxiety, which predicted self-efficacy. Self-efficacy predicted achievement in both males and females. The results signal that gender-specific relations among these constructs are important factors to consider in the achievement scores of students in high school physical education. Physical education programs should model curricula and instructional practices that defuse potentially harmful body image discrepancies that seem most poignant in females while engaging all learners to feel competent and safe.