Context: There is a lack of literature to support the diagnostic accuracy and cut-off scores of commonly used patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and clinician-oriented outcomes such as postural-control assessments (PCAs) when treating post-ACL reconstruction (ACLR) patients. These scores could help tailor treatments, enhance patient-centered care and may identify individuals in need of additional rehabilitation. Objective: To determine if differences in 4-PROMs and 3-PCAs exist between post-ACLR and healthy participants, and to determine the diagnostic accuracy and cut-off scores of these outcomes. Design: Case control. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: A total of 20 post-ACLR and 40 healthy control participants. Main Outcome Measures: The participants completed 4-PROMs (the Disablement in the Physically Active Scale [DPA], The Fear-Avoidance Belief Questionnaire [FABQ], the Knee Osteoarthritis Outcomes Score [KOOS] subscales, and the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia [TSK-11]) and 3-PCAs (the Balance Error Scoring System [BESS], the modified Star Excursion Balance Test [SEBT], and static balance on an instrumented force plate). Mann-Whitney U tests examined differences between groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were employed to determine sensitivity and specificity. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) was calculated to determine the diagnostic accuracy of each instrument. The Youdin Index was used to determine cut-off scores. Alpha was set a priori at P < 0.05. Results: There were significant differences between groups for all PROMs (P < 0.05). There were no differences in PCAs between groups. The cut-off scores should be interpreted with caution for some instruments, as the scores may not be clinically applicable. Conclusions: Post-ACLR participants have decreased self-reported function and health-related quality of life. The PROMs are capable of discriminating between groups. Clinicians should consider using the cut-off scores in clinical practice. Further use of the instruments to examine detriments after completion of standard rehabilitation may be warranted.
Johanna M. Hoch, Cori W. Sinnott, Kendall P. Robinson, William O. Perkins and Jonathan W. Hartman
Kristian J. Hill, Kendall P. Robinson, Jennifer W. Cuchna and Matthew C. Hoch
Increasing hamstring flexibility through clinical stretching interventions may be an effective means to prevent hamstring injuries. However the most effective method to increase hamstring flexibility has yet to be determined.
For a healthy individual, are proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching programs more effective in immediately improving hamstring flexibility when compared with static stretching programs?
Summary of Key Findings:
A thorough literature search returned 195 possible studies; 5 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included. Current evidence supports the use of PNF stretching or static stretching programs for increasing hamstring flexibility. However, neither program demonstrated superior effectiveness when examining immediate increases in hamstring flexibility.
Clinical Bottom Line:
There were consistent findings from multiple low-quality studies that indicate there is no difference in the immediate improvements in hamstring flexibility when comparing PNF stretching programs to static stretching programs in physically active adults.
Strength of Recommendation:
Grade B evidence exists that PNF and static stretching programs equally increase hamstring flexibility immediately following the stretching program.