Kerry S. Courneya and Packianatian Cheiadurai
The study was concerned with empirically confirming the proposed classification of the performance measures in baseball into tertiary, secondary, and primary measures based on their proximity to skill execution and task performance and with the extent to which these measures were contaminated by external factors. The data consisted of various performance measures derived from the box scores of games played by 10 teams from the National Collegiate Athletic Association during the 1988 season (N=381 games). For confirmatory purposes» the total sample was subdivided into home and away samples (N=762 observations). The results of correlational and regression analyses supported the proposition that the secondary measures would be more closely related to the tertiary measures than would the primary measures. Further» ran differential was the superior tertiary measure relative to win/loss and ratio of final score in reflecting skill execution and task performance. Practical applications of the model and directions for future research are then discussed.
Edward MeAuley and Kerry S. Courneya
This paper documents the development and validation of the three-factor Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale (SEES), a measure of global psychological responses to the stimulus properties of exercise. Two of these factors correspond to the positive and negative poles associated with psychological health, Positive Weil-Being and Psychological Distress, whereas the third factor represents subjective indicants of Fatigue. The three-factor structure originally established by exploratory factor analysis using young adults was also supported in middle-aged exercising adults using confirmatory factor analytic techniques. Moreover, convergent and discriminant validity for the SEES subscales was demonstrated by examining relations with measures of affect regularly employed in exercise domain. The SEES may represent a useful starting point for more thoroughly examining exercise and subjective responses at the global level, and these dimensions of the scale may represent possible antecedents of specific affective responsivity.
Paul Estabrooks and Kerry S. Courneya
The purpose of the study was to determine if exercise self-schema predicts exercise participation and moderates the exercise intention-behavior relationship. Participants were undergraduate students categorized into exerciser schematics (n = 527), nonexerciser schematics (n = 52), and aschematics (n = 106). The first of two questionnaires, given 4 weeks apart, included intention items for moderate and strenuous exercise, and exercise at university facilities. The second questionnaire included self-reported exercise items. Attendance at the university fitness facilities was monitored during the 4-week period between questionnaires. Kruskal-Wallis tests determined exerciser schematics reported intending to and exercising more often than aschematics and nonexerciser schematics for all measures (p < .01). Fischer z transformations revealed partial support for the hypothesis that exerciser schematics would have a higher correlation between intention and exercise than aschematics or nonexerciser schematics. Discussion focused on overcoming schematic assessment problems, offered explanation of results, and proposed future exercise self-schema research.
Kerry S. Courneya and Edward McAuley
Kerry S. Courneya and Albert V. Carron
A home advantage in sport competitions has been well documented. The strength and consistency of the home advantage has made it a popular phenomenon in sport today. Very little systematic research has been carried out, however, and the home advantage remains one of the least understood phenomena in sport. It appears that much of the game location research has been arbitrary, and a clear sense of direction is lacking. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a conceptual framework to organize a comprehensive review of previous game location research and provide direction for future research. The review of literature indicated that the descriptive phase of inquiry has been completed, and it is time to address the underlying mechanisms responsible for the manifestation of the home advantage. Possible methodologies and areas of inquiry are highlighted and discussed.
M. Kjerstin Baldwin and Kerry S. Courneya
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical exercise and self-esteem in breast cancer survivors using Sonstroem and Morgan’s (1989) exercise and self-esteem model (EXSEM). Participants were 64 women from four breast cancer support groups. Each participant completed a battery of self-administered questionnaires that assessed exercise participation, physical competence, physical acceptance, and global self-esteem. Pearson correlation analyses demonstrated that physical acceptance, physical competence, and exercise participation each had significant zero-order relationships with global self-esteem. Multiple regression analysis determined that these three constructs together explained 46% of the variance in global self-esteem. Consistent with hypotheses, path analysis showed that the significant relationship between exercise participation and global self-esteem was mediated entirely by physical competence. It was concluded that the EXSEM may be a viable framework for examining the mechanisms by which physical exercise may influence self-esteem in breast cancer survivors.
Kerry S. Courneya and Albert V. Carron
The present study investigated the effects of season game number, series game number, length of home stand, length of visitor's road trip, home travel, and visitor travel on the home advantage in minor league Double A baseball (N= 1812 games). Initial analysis indicated that the home team won 55.1% of the games (p<.001). Forced-entry multiple regression analyses determined that the combined main and interaction effects of the predictor variables explained less than 1.2% of the variance in win/loss outcome (p>.49). Chi-square analyses revealed that the variable of length of visitor's road trip produced the greatest change in the magnitude of home advantage. When the length of visitor's road trip was cross-tabulated with the length of home stand, me change in home advantage was statistically significant for the home team's later series (p<.05). The implications of these results for the various home advantage explanations are discussed, and future directions for home advantage research are offered.
Kerry S. Courneya and Albert V. Carron
Ryan E. Rhodes, Kerry S. Courneya and Leslie A. Hayduk
This study investigated the moderating influence of the five-factor model of personality (FFM) on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in the exercise domain. Although an analysis of all possible moderation effects was conducted, it was hypothesized that high extraversion (E) and conscientiousness (C) individuals would demonstrate significantly stronger relationships between intentions and exercise behavior than those low in E and C. Conversely, it was expected that high neuroticism (N) individuals would show a significantly weaker relationship between intention and exercise behavior than those low in N. A total of 300 undergraduate students completed measures of the FFM, TPB, and a 2-week follow-up of exercise behavior. Two-group structural equation models of the TPB were created using a median split for each personality trait. Overall, 5 significant (p < .05) moderating effects were found. Specifically, N was found to moderate the effect of subjective norm on intention. E also moderated the effects of subjective norm on intention as well as intention on behavior. C moderated the effects of affective attitude on intention and intention on behavior. Theorized influences for the presence or absence of personality moderators are discussed. The results generally support the possibility of personality being a moderator of the TPB but highlight the need for future research and replication.