Emerging research suggests that the stress and complexities of the teaching profession contribute to early exits from the field. Stressors may be increased when individuals are tasked with teaching physical education and another school subject(s) concurrently. More specifically, role conflict in teaching multiple school subjects consists of three subdomains: status conflict, schedule conflict, and energy expenditure. The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretically informed conceptual model of this type of conflict that better informs the professional lives and careers of teachers. The framework’s three interrelated elements are dynamic and contextually bound and influence the experience of multiple subjects role conflict. These three elements include experiences of role conflict, contextual and individual factors, and an outer limit of individuals’ capacity to manage stressors. Three vignettes are used to illustrate how teachers’ experiences of conflict interact with contextual and individual factors to increase or decrease their capacity for stress.
Teaching Multiple School Subjects Role Conflict: A Theoretically Informed Conceptual Framework
Cassandra Iannucci and Kevin Andrew Richards
Preservice Teachers’ Assessment Literacy Within Models-Based Practice
Jenna Starck, Oleg A. Sinelnikov, and Kevin Andrew Richards
Purpose: Using the assessment literacy framework, the purpose of this study was to explore preservice teachers understanding and enactment of the message system during an early field experience. Method: Six PTs employed SE seasons totaling 540 min. Seven qualitative data methods were utilized. Data analysis included deductive and inductive analysis using a thematic approach. Trustworthiness included data triangulation, peer debriefing, negative case analysis, and the maintenance of an audit trail. Results: Three main themes derived from the data included: instructional decisions were driven by the SE model and informal assessment; formal assessment was driven by the structure of SE; and high assessment value but low assessment literacy. Discussion/Conclusion: The SE model drove PTs to use formal assessment, but primarily in an evaluative manner. The PTs lacked assessment literacy, felt pressure to follow the model, did not use assessment to inform teaching, and had concerns for future assessment use.
Socializing Influences in the Careers of South Korean Female Physical Educators
Okseon Lee, Kevin Andrew Richards, Yeri Hong, and Youngjoon Kim
Purpose: Grounded in the occupational socialization theory, this study explored how gender interacted with and influenced socialization experiences in the careers of South Korean female physical educators. Specific attention was directed toward the gendered experiences that female teachers experienced and the coping strategies to navigate them. Methods: The study adopted a qualitative case study design, and the participants were 15 female secondary school physical educators. Data were collected through life story timelines, critical incident writings, and individual interviews. Results: Four themes emerged: (a) unwelcomed and invisible; (b) experiencing a physicality-driven hierarchy; (c) dual marginalization as female physical educators; and (d) retreating, masking, redefining, or leaving to cope with challenges. Discussion/Conclusions: The findings indicated that female physical educators experienced being dual-marginalized due to the interplay between gender and subject matter. In response to the challenges, some conformed to their gender role to be safe; however, other teachers employed various strategies to overcome the status quo.
Impact of a Self-Determination Theory–Informed Training on Youth Wellness Program Staff
Shelby E. Ison, Kim C. Graber, and Kevin Andrew Richards
Background: Staff play a critical role in promoting positive youth development in out-of-school-time programs, yet little is known about best-practices for preparing staff to work with youth and meet their needs. The present study seeks to understand the impact of a basic psychological needs training on the staff’s ability to deliver needs-supportive instruction to youth during a summer wellness program. Methods: A quasi-experimental, qualitative design using interviews, observations, and journals was employed to compare the intervention staff (n = 9; M = 21.5) with a comparison group who did not receive the training (n = 8; M = 21.10). Results: Results indicated that the intervention enhanced the staff’s understandings of basic psychological needs and empowered them to be more responsive to youth misbehavior, while educating youth about the importance of appropriate behavior. Conclusions: In order to prepare staff to meet the psychological needs of youth and protect themselves against exhaustion and burnout, future research should examine adequate dosage and content of staff training.
A Practical Approach to Negotiating Authorship and Preparing Manuscripts for Publication
Kevin Andrew Richards, Michael A. Hemphill, and Sara B. Flory
The academic publishing process is fraught with challenges, inconsistencies, and the absence of clearly articulated guidelines and recommendations, particularly for doctoral students and other newcomers. Our goal is to overview key information that authors may consider and decisions they will need to make when determining authorship and preparing manuscripts for submission. Specifically, we discuss how authors can consider (a) the ongoing discussion of authorship, (b) identifying a target journal, and (c) submitting a manuscript for review. We draw influence from how processes are conducted relative to the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education in approaching our commentary as a point of reference. Nevertheless, while acknowledging differences in journal style and submission formats, many of the considerations discussed are relevant across publication outlets. Common threads across the discussion impress the importance of being intentional, proactive, and adaptive when engaging in authorship conversations and identifying target journals for submission.
Adapted Physical Educators Navigating Relationships With School Administrators
Kevin Andrew Richards, Scott McNamara, Alyssa M. Trad, Lauren Hill, and Sarena Abdallah
School administrators represent key agents of socialization for teachers within their schools, including adapted physical educators who design and implement instruction for youth with disabilities, often across multiple school sites. The purpose of this study was to understand how adapted physical educators navigate and build relationships with administrators in the schools where they teach. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 24 adapted physical educators from the U.S. state of California and analyzed using a multiphase approach. Analysis suggested both the importance of and challenges with building effective relationships with administrators. Themes included the following: (a) Administrators do not understand adapted physical education, which impacts programs and students; (b) the importance of relationship building in cultivating principal support; and (c) relationship development requires intentionality, but results in trust and motivation. Results are discussed using role socialization theory, and recommendations for the preparation of both adapted physical educators and school principals are discussed.
Adapted Physical Educators’ Experiences With School Administration and Marginalization
Scott W.T. McNamara, Kevin Andrew Richards, Alyssa M. Trad, Sarena Abdallah, and Lauren Hill
Background: While preliminary research has indicated that adapted physical education (APE) teachers experience marginalization, little research has examined how specific relationships factor into these experiences. Purpose: This study sought to examine APE teachers’ experiences and perceptions of school administrators. Methodology: Occupational socialization theory was used to guide semistructured interviews with 24 APE teachers about their relationship with administrators. Results: A collaborative approach to qualitative data analysis was used to construct four themes: (a) APE teachers are socialized to be marginal and settle for inadequate support; (b) negative impressions of general physical education led to a similar outlook on APE; (c) administrators focus on compliance with mandates over quality practice in APE; and (d) support depends on administrative effort, and many administrators look uncomfortable in the gym. Conclusion: Although these findings shed light on the complex, and often absent, relationship between APE teachers and their administrators, still additional research is needed.
A Resource for Promoting Personal and Social Responsibility in Higher Education: A Call to Action for Kinesiology Departments
Karisa L. Kuipers, Jennifer M. Jacobs, Paul M. Wright, and Kevin Andrew Richards
In recent decades, emphasis on helping postsecondary students develop personal and social responsibility has increased in higher education. The purpose of this conceptual paper is to propose a kinesiology-based model to assist in defining, implementing, and evaluating personal and social responsibility education with postsecondary students. In the paper, a general overview of the higher education landscape as it relates to personal and social responsibility is presented. Then, the teaching personal and social responsibility model is presented as a model that is already familiar in kinesiology and may assist in defining, implementing, and evaluating structures and strategies for promoting personal and social responsibility in higher education. The alignment of this model and the personal and social responsibility priorities of higher education are analyzed. Recommendations for implementing specific strategies and resources associated with the teaching personal and social responsibility model into higher education are shared, and next steps for integrating these resources are acknowledged.
Another Decade of Qualitative Research in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education
Shelby E. Ison, Kevin Andrew Richards, Michael A. Hemphill, and Thomas J. Templin
Background: Over the past several decades, scholars have regularly reviewed qualitative research published in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, among other outlets, to understand the developing role of qualitative methods in physical education and sport pedagogy. In this review, the authors present a descriptive and thematic analysis of qualitative research articles published between 2009 and 2019, extending previous reviews. Methods: A total of 137 empirical articles were published that included a qualitative component (38.48%). This included purely qualitative studies (28.37%) as well as those using mixed methods (10.11%). Results: Descriptive results include analyses of article classifications, authorship, participants, theoretical/conceptual frameworks, qualitative methodologies, data collection methods, and data analysis and trustworthiness strategies. Inductive analysis of the 137 qualitative containing articles resulted in six themes and corresponding subthemes of research foci. Conclusions: Suggestions for future submissions to the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education are also presented.
Influence of a Summer Wellness Program on Bullying Reduction Among School-Age Children
Mengyi Wei, Kevin Andrew Richards, Naiman A. Khan, Amelia Mays Woods, Dorothy L. Espelage, and Kim C. Graber
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine children’s, camp counselors’, and activity leaders’ perceptions toward the effects of a 4-week teaching personal and social responsibility model-based summer learning and enrichment program and its ability to reduce bullying behaviors among school-age children. Method: Data collection included semistructured interviews with 30 children and eight camp staff. Child participants completed the following pre- and postsurveys: Personal and Social Responsibility Questionnaire and the Illinois Bullying Scale. In addition, daily observations over a 4-week period were recorded in a field notes log. Survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and bivariate correlations, and all observational and interview data were coded using inductive and deductive techniques. Results: The results indicated that the implementation of teaching personal and social responsibility model was perceived to be associated with reduction in the bullying. Conclusion: Findings from the present study suggested teaching personal and social responsibility facilitated social and emotional learning and improved children’s personal and social responsibility.