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Kevin M. Cross

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was introduced to the medical community in the mid-1960s as a powerful anti-inflammatory agent. Clinical studies and subjective claims abounded about its healing effects on a variety of musculoskeletal injuries. Unfortunately, soon after the incorporation of DMSO into rehabilitation routines, the American Medical Association (AMA) denounced many of the studies of DMSO as being unscientific in nature, and the possibility of toxic effects on the optical lens was noted in an experiment using primates as subjects. As a result, the use of DMSOin the medical community was halted. The exact mechanisms by which DMSO affects the healing process are unknown; however, several studies from the 1980s noted specific effects during various phases of the inflammatory process, such as monocyte and fibroblast activity. Presently, DMSO is considered an investigational drag and has not been approved by the Food and Drag Administration for use with musculoskeletal disorders.

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Kevin M. Cross

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Christine L. Berg, Joseph M. Hart, Riann Palmieri-Smith, Kevin M. Cross and Christopher D. Ingersoll

Context:

If ankle joint cryotherapy impairs the ability of the ankle musculature to counteract potentially injurious forces, the ankle is left vulnerable to injury.

Objective:

To compare peroneal reaction to sudden inversion following ankle joint cryotherapy.

Design:

Repeated measures design with independent variables, treatment (cryotherapy and control), and time (baseline, immediately post treatment, 15 minutes post treatment, and 30 minutes post treatment).

Setting:

University research laboratory.

Patients or Other Participants:

Twenty-seven healthy volunteers.

Intervention(s):

An ice bag was secured to the lateral ankle joint for 20 minutes.

Main Outcome Measures:

The onset and average root mean square amplitude of EMG activity in the peroneal muscles was calculated following the release of a trap door mechanism causing inversion.

Results:

There was no statistically significant change from baseline for peroneal reaction time or average peroneal muscle activity at any post treatment time.

Conclusions:

Cryotherapy does not affect peroneal muscle reaction following sudden inversion perturbation.

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Kevin M. Cross, Kelly K. Gurka, Susan Saliba, Mark Conaway and Jay Hertel

Context: Thigh muscle strains are among the most common injuries in high school soccer for both males and females. Similar results have been reported among college soccer players, specifically for hamstring strains. In college soccer, males have a higher injury rate than women, although they share common injury characteristics. Currently, no studies exist comparing the injury rate or injury characteristics of thigh muscle strains between sexes playing high school soccer. Objective: To compare thigh muscle strain injury rates and injury event characteristics among sexes participating in high school soccer. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: A total of 100 nationally representative high schools that participated in the High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System, Reporting Information Online. Participants: High school soccer athletes who had a thigh muscle strain. Main Outcome Measures: Injury rates of thigh muscle strains were calculated between sexes. The occurrence of the following variables during a thigh muscle injury was compared between sexes: grade level, age, level of play, event type, time of practice, time of competition, basic injury mechanism, soccer activity, player position, field location, practice type, and time of season. Results: Males had a lower injury rate of thigh muscle strains during competition than females (rate ratio = 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.47–0.93). No differences between sexes existed in the distribution of first-time or recurrent event characteristics. When combining sexes, recurrent strains (93%) occurred more frequently on the offensive side of the field than first-time strains (59%), P < .001. The majority of strains occurred among the varsity players (71%), during running activities (60%) and practices (58%). Conclusions: Males were less likely to sustain a thigh muscle strain during competitions, but no other differences existed between sexes. The events surrounding all thigh muscle strains may be described with some common properties. Consideration of these characteristics may assist in the development of preventive and rehabilitative programs as well as direct future research on thigh muscle strains among high school soccer players.