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Khirey B. Walker, Chad Seifried, Brian Soebbing and Kwame Agyemang

The present study used framing theory to analyze reports and articles from 1998 through 2016 offered by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and various newspapers to analyze the relationship between social-control agents and how they speak to specific audiences (e.g., public and NCAA members) about instances of misconduct by Division I members. The concept of conflict framing (i.e., frame alignment, counterframing, and reframing) is featured. The research demonstrated that episodic framing is more widespread than thematic framing, but it is used differently for specific audiences. The study also found that thematic framing is highly correlated with the normative approach and confirms that media outlets used assorted conflict-framing strategies (e.g., frame alignment, counterframing, and debunking) to emphasize that information on cases was false, incomplete, correct, or filtered. Different uses regarding precedent are also acknowledged, along with coverage concerning the type of institution and location of newspaper (i.e., local or national).

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Khirey B. Walker, Chad S. Seifried and Brian P. Soebbing

The present study focuses on the National Collegiate Athletic Association and cases of misconduct from 1953 to 2016 to examine evidence of organizational layering created by social-control agents. The historical method was employed and found wrongdoing may influence the creation of organizational layers to control and/or manage future behavior. Furthermore, the activities of the National Collegiate Athletic Association featured variation in centralization, formalization, and complexity through expanding horizontal; vertical (e.g., institutional, managerial, and technical); and spatial differentiations. Second, individual social-control agents impact future organizational policies and member behavior but social-control agents’ power may be challenged as an organization grows. Third, as a social-control agent, the National Collegiate Athletic Association struggled with assessing cases of misconduct, assigning sanctions in a timely manner and at a level to deter future wrongdoing. Finally, the present study offers several propositions connecting third-party regulators to the synergy between complexity (i.e., horizontal and vertical differentiations); formalization; and centralization.

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Khirey Walker, Brian P. Soebbing, Chad S. Seifried and Adam G. Pfleegor

Finisher Sports went from a small business to one of the top sports apparel businesses in the United States under the leadership of its founder, George Taylor. After declaring bankruptcy, Taylor sold the business to Carol Anthony, President and CEO of Star Brand Group. Since the purchase, the Star Brand Group believed that Finisher Sports had not realized its full revenue potential. Thus, Anthony organized a think tank to devise solutions. The purpose of the case study is for students, as the members of the think tank, to examine Finisher sports from marketing and organizational behavior perspectives, particularly focusing on the role that the company’s history plays in the marketing and strategic components of the company.