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Kim Beals, Katherine A. Perlsweig, John E. Haubenstriker, Mita Lovalekar, Chris P. Beck, Darcie L. Yount, Matthew E. Darnell, Katelyn Allison and Bradley C. Nindl

Special operation forces participating in mountain warfare/cold weather (MWCW) training have higher energy demands, but adequate fueling is difficult to achieve. The purpose of the study was to determine energy expenditure relative to energy intake and examine fueling patterns during 3 days of MWCW training in Naval Special Warfare Sea, Air, Land (SEAL) Qualification Training (SQT) students. Ten SQT students (age: 23.3 ± 1.8 years, height: 182.3 ± 6.4 cm, and weight: 83.6 ± 4.5 kg) were fitted for heart rate and accelerometer monitors during MWCW training. Total daily energy expenditure was determined using a combination of direct observation and heart rate-VO2 regression. Total daily energy intake was collected using the Automated Self-Administered 24 (ASA24) assessment tool. Total daily energy expenditure for river crossing, alpine skills, and mountain patrol were 3,913 ± 293, 4,207 ± 400, and 5,457 ± 828 kcals, respectively. Reported total daily energy intakes were 2,854 ± 657 (river crossing) and 2,289 ± 680 kcals (mountain patrol), producing 1,044 ± 784 and 3,112 ± 1,420 kcal deficits, respectively. SQT students consumed 258 ± 95 g (3.1 ± 1.3 g·kg−1·day−1) of carbohydrates, 130 ± 55 g (1.6 ± 0.7 g·kg−1·day−1) of protein, and 113 ± 39 g (1.4 ± 0.5 g·kg−1·day−1) of fat. MWCW training evolutions elicited high total daily energy expenditure and inadequate energy intake, especially before and during active training sessions, which may lead to decreased work output, early onset fatigue, and increased risk of injury. Increasing total daily energy intake by providing fuel/fluids, primarily carbohydrates, during the planned breaks and “downtime” of each training evolution and focusing on provision of the balance of calories/macronutrients needed for a more complete and expedited recovery over dinner and evening snacks will help bridge the energy gap.

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Kara N. Dentro, Kim Beals, Scott E. Crouter, Joey C. Eisenmann, Thomas L. McKenzie, Russell R. Pate, Brian E. Saelens, Susan B. Sisson, Donna Spruijt-Metz, Melinda S. Sothern and Peter T. Katzmarzyk

Background:

The National Physical Activity Plan Alliance partnered with physical activity experts to develop a report card that provides a comprehensive assessment of physical activity among United States children and youth.

Methods:

The 2014 U.S. Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth includes 10 indicators: overall physical activity levels, sedentary behaviors, active transportation, organized sport participation, active play, health-related fitness, family and peers, school, community and the built environment, and government strategies and investments. Data from nationally representative surveys were used to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the physical activity indicators. The Committee used the best available data source to grade the indicators using a standard rubric.

Results:

Approximately one-quarter of children and youth 6 to 15 years of age were at least moderately active for 60 min/day on at least 5 days per week. The prevalence was lower among youth compared with younger children, resulting in a grade of D- for overall physical activity levels. Five of the remaining 9 indicators received grades ranging from B- to F, whereas there was insufficient data to grade 4 indicators, highlighting the need for more research in some areas.

Conclusions:

Physical activity levels among U.S. children and youth are low and sedentary behavior is high, suggesting that current infrastructure, policies, programs, and investments in support of children’s physical activity are not sufficient.

Open access

Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Kara D. Denstel, Kim Beals, Jordan Carlson, Scott E. Crouter, Thomas L. McKenzie, Russell R. Pate, Susan B. Sisson, Amanda E. Staiano, Heidi Stanish, Dianne S. Ward, Melicia Whitt-Glover and Carly Wright

Open access

Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Kara D. Denstel, Kim Beals, Christopher Bolling, Carly Wright, Scott E. Crouter, Thomas L. McKenzie, Russell R. Pate, Brian E. Saelens, Amanda E. Staiano, Heidi I. Stanish and Susan B. Sisson

Background:

The 2016 United States (U.S.) Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth provides a comprehensive evaluation of physical activity levels and factors influencing physical activity among children and youth.

Methods:

The report card includes 10 indicators: Overall Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Active Transportation, Organized Sport Participation, Active Play, Health-related Fitness, Family and Peers, School, Community and the Built Environment, and Government Strategies and Investments. Nationally representative data were used to evaluate the indicators using a standard grading rubric.

Results:

Sufficient data were available to assign grades to 7 of the indicators, and these ranged from B- for Community and the Built Environment to F for Active Transportation. Overall Physical Activity received a grade of D- due to the low prevalence of meeting physical activity guidelines. A grade of D was assigned to Health-related Fitness, reflecting the low prevalence of meeting cardiorespiratory fitness standards. Disparities across age, gender, racial/ethnic and socioeconomic groups were observed for several indicators.

Conclusions:

Continued poor grades suggest that additional work is required to provide opportunities for U.S. children to be physically active. The observed disparities indicate that special attention should be given to girls, minorities, and those from lower socioeconomic groups when implementing intervention strategies.