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What They See and What They Do: Perceptions and Expectations Held by Teacher Educators

Kim C. Graber

This study examined how teacher educators’ perceptions of their undergraduate students’ classroom agenda influenced subsequent expectations for trainee performance,1 more particularly, how those perceptions shape the ways in which instructional demands are defined, communicated, and enforced or relented over the span of an undergraduate course. Three teacher educators teaching two courses were studied along with a group of students who were enrolled in both courses. Data collection consisted of nonparticipant observation, interviews, and document analysis. The results indicate that the teacher educators developed perceptions of student agendas that in some regards were closely similar but in other ways were sharply divergent. Further, each instructor developed a perception of her students’ classroom agenda that was somewhat congruent with her own intentions for the class and her own standards for student intentions and actions. Accordingly, expectations for trainees’ classroom performance were communicated in ways that reflected the degree of congruence between perception of students’ agenda and the instructors’ own definition of desirable student characteristics.

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The Emergence of Faculty Consensus Concerning Teacher Education: The Socialization Process of Creating and Sustaining Faculty Agreement

Kim C. Graber

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The Influence of Teacher Education Programs on the Beliefs of Student Teachers: General Pedagogical Knowledge, Pedagogical Content Knowledge, and Teacher Education Course Work

Kim C. Graber

The purpose of this study was to (a) examine how student teachers believed they incorporated general pedagogical knowledge into lessons, (b) examine how student teachers believed they incorporated pedagogical content knowledge into lessons, and (c) examine the beliefs held by student teachers regarding those elements of their teacher education program that most directly guided their practice. Twenty student teachers, 7 teacher educators, and 8 cooperating teachers were interviewed. Data were analyzed and grouped into themes. The results indicate that the degree to which students incorporated general pedagogical knowledge into teaching was contingent on the placement setting, support of the cooperating teacher, influence of pupils, and level the student teacher was teaching. Student teachers had greater difficulty incorporating pedagogical content knowledge. The student teachers from one university all believed they were primarily influenced by one particular teacher educator. A single powerful individual may be more important in shaping preservice student beliefs than an entire program of courses and experiences.

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Improving Teaching in Physical Education

Kim C. Graber

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Student Misconceptions during Two Invasion Game Units in Physical Education: A Qualitative Investigation of Student Thought Processing

Molly K. Hare and Kim C. Graber

Although classroom researchers have made considerable progress in better understanding how students acquire knowledge, researchers in physical education have yet to discover the potential of this inquiry. One of the least investigated areas includes understanding how students misconceive knowledge. The purpose of this study was to describe misconceptions that were revealed during the course of participation by students in an elementary physical education class. Secondary purposes were to test alternative methods for recording and classifying the types of misconceptions that emerged. Data collection included observations and videotape recordings, formal and informal interviews. Think aloud interviews, and document analysis. Misconceptions that emerged were classified into categories representing (a) motor skill execution, (b) confusion with regard to terminology, (c) confusion with regard to strategy, and (d) misconceptions concerning the instructional tasks of the lesson. Instruction was a major factor in either reducing misconceptions or creating a climate ripe for their development.

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Chapter 7: Are the National Standards Achievable?—Conclusions and Recommendations

Kim C. Graber and Lawrence F. Locke

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Teacher Socialization from a Dialectical Perspective: Pretraining through Induction

Paul G. Schempp and Kim C. Graber

Recent attention has focused on examining the process of becoming a teacher. Researchers have begun studying the stages of socialization that influence the beliefs, behaviors, and perspectives of those who choose to teach. The purpose of this article is to explore the earlier stages of professional socialization, focusing on four periods (pretraining, preservice, field experiences, and induction) that have the potential to significantly impact teacher development. The authors maintain that prospective teachers participate in a dialectical process, determining to some degree which beliefs they will acquire and which they will ignore. Specifically, this article supports the notion that a dialectical process exists during all four selected periods of socialization—a contest between societal expectations and the individual inclinations of prospective teachers.

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Perceptions of Overweight Students Concerning Their Experiences in Physical Education

Josh Trout and Kim C. Graber

The purpose of this investigation was to examine overweight students’ perceptions of and experiences in physical education. Specifically, the applicability of learned helplessness as a framework to understand their experiences was explored. Participants were seven female and five male high school students whose body mass index was at or higher than the gender- and age-specific 85th percentile based on Centers for Disease Control growth charts. Data collection included formal interviews with students and their parents. The primary findings indicate that students have mixed opinions concerning the benefits to be derived from physical education. Despite recognizing the relationship between lack of physical activity and obesity, many participants avoided participation because they had been traumatized to the extent of exhibiting symptoms consistent with learned helplessness. Participants demonstrated greater concern about visibility than they did about their performance, which suggests they might engage in physical activity if shielded from the view of peers.

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Gender-Biased Communication in Physical Education

Julia A. Valley and Kim C. Graber


This study examined physical education teachers’ awareness of gender equitable practices as well as the language and behaviors they employed in the physical education environment. The purpose of the study was to determine (a) what teachers know about gender equitable practices, (b) what types of gender bias are demonstrated, and (c) how teachers are influenced to adopt gender equitable behaviors in the physical education context.


A multiple-case study approach was used to provide an in-depth analysis of the attitudes and behaviors of four physical education teachers from four different schools. Teachers were formally and informally interviewed before, during, and after four extensive two-week periods of observations that included being audio recorded throughout the school day.


Themes emerged across the cases indicating that teachers engaged in teaching practices that reinforced gender stereotypes through biased language and gender segregation.


Teachers’ lack of awareness and understanding of gender equity prevented them from providing an inclusive learning experience for all students.

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Online Education: Crossing a New Educational Frontier

Kim C. Graber and Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko

The purpose of this article is to provide background information related to the development of the 2014 American Kinesiology Association (AKA) Leadership Workshop titled “The Future of Teaching and Learning in an Online World”. A brief description of online education is provided, along with a synopsis of the advantages and challenges confronting instructors and administrators in institutions of higher education who are increasingly implementing this form of instruction. An overview of the articles included in this special issue is also provided.