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Shannon David, Kim Gray, Jeffrey A. Russell and Chad Starkey

The original and modified Ottawa Ankle Rules (OARs) were developed as clinical decision rules for use in emergency departments. However, the OARs have not been evaluated as an acute clinical evaluation tool.


To evaluate the measures of diagnostic accuracy of the OARs in the acute setting.


The OARs were applied to all appropriate ankle injuries at 2 colleges (athletics and club sports) and 21 high schools. The outcomes of OARs, diagnosis, and decision for referral were collected by the athletic trainers (ATs) at each of the locations. Contingency tables were created for evaluations completed within 1 h for which radiographs were obtained. From these data the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated.


The OARs met the criteria for radiographs in 100 of the 124 cases, of which 38 were actually referred for imaging. Based on radiographic findings in an acute setting, the OARs (n = 38) had a high sensitivity (.88) and are good predictors to rule out the presence of a fracture. Low specificity (0.00) results led to a high number of false positives and low positive predictive values (.18).


When applied during the first hour after injury the OARs significantly overestimate the need for radiographs. However, a negative finding rules out the need to obtain radiographs. It appears the AT’s decision making based on the totality of the examination findings is the best filter in determining referral for radiographs.

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Kym Joanne Price, Brett Ashley Gordon, Kim Gray, Kerri Gergely, Stephen Richard Bird and Amanda Clare Benson

This study investigated the influence of cardiac intervention and physical capacity of individuals attending an Australian outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program on the initial exercise prescription. A total of 85 patients commencing outpatient cardiac rehabilitation at a major metropolitan hospital had their physical capacity assessed by an incremental shuttle walk test, and the initial aerobic exercise intensity and resistance training load prescribed were recorded. Physical capacity was lower in surgical patients than nonsurgical patients. While physical capacity was higher in younger compared with older surgical patients, there was no difference between younger and older nonsurgical patients. The initial exercise intensity did not differ between surgical and nonsurgical patients. This study highlights the importance of preprogram exercise testing to enable exercise prescription to be individualized according to actual physical capacity, rather than symptoms, comorbidities and age, in order to maximize the benefit of cardiac rehabilitation.