Many researchers in psychology and physical activity have discussed the overlap among control constructs in various theories. Skinner (1996) proposed an integrative control framework based on an agent-means-ends distinction that offered comparisons among and more explicit measurement of 3 control constructs—control, capacity, and strategy beliefs. No study in the exercise domain has yet empirically examined these advantages. This study evaluated Skinner’s framework relative to their contribution to predicting exercise attendance. A prospective design was used to consider the potential change in the nature of the relationships. High correlations (range r = .52–.88) at 2 time points in the exercise program suggested overlap among control constructs when using Skinner’s measurement procedures. Only capacity beliefs and behavioral intention were significantly related to exercise attendance (model R 2 adjusted = .11 and .16, p = .03 and .01, respectively, at onset and midprogram).Adjusted The findings do not support Skinner’s contentions but are similar to previous findings in the exercise literature.
Kimberley A. Dawson, Lawrence R. Brawley and James E. Maddux
Kimberley Morrison, Rebecca A. Braham, Brian Dawson and Kym Guelfi
The effects of 8 wk of soft-sand (n = 19) and firm-surface walking (n = 19) on blood lipids, submaximal fitness (8-min walk at 4.5 km/hr), and leg strength in elderly (60+ yr), sedentary women were studied. Significant main time effects (p < .005) were found for blood lipids. The surface interaction effect for high-density lipoprotein approached significance (p = .052), with a tendency for higher levels in the sand group postintervention (p = .06). Neither group reported significant differences across time for submaximal oxygen consumption (p = .223), but a greater percentage reduction in heart-rate response to the 8-min walk was reported in the sand group (p = .016). Knee strength did not change in either group, whereas hip strength significantly improved in both groups (p = .0001), with larger effect sizes reported in the sand group. Overall, both groups showed improvements in blood lipids, fitness, and strength, with strength changes being slightly higher in the sand-walking group.
Alex J. Benson, Mark Eys, Mark Surya, Kimberley Dawson and Margaret Schneider
Carolyn E. McEwen, Laura Hurd Clarke, Erica V. Bennett, Kimberley A. Dawson and Peter R.E. Crocker
The purpose of this study was to examine elite Canadian individual-sport athletes’ experiences with an Olympic team-selection process. Six nonselected Canadian individual-sport athletes who were attempting to qualify for the Olympics took part in 3 semistructured interviews during the Olympic team-selection process, after they gained knowledge of their selection status, and after the Olympic Games. Data were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three major themes emerged from the interpretation of the athletes’ experiences: (a) pursuing and expressing the Olympic athlete identity; (b) navigating the Olympic team-selection process: expectations, barriers, and tensions; and (c) moving on: reactions, life-goal reinvestment, and athletic-goal adjustment. Participants’ experiences were shaped by personal motivation and social expectations, with changes shifting across the 3 interview periods. Athletes attempted to manage the discontent of nonselection through processes of positive reappraisal, athletic-goal adjustment, and accentuating other life goals and identities.