Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 8 of 8 items for

  • Author: Kimberley Gammage x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Lindsay Cline and Kimberley L. Gammage

Background:

Despite the well-documented benefits of physical activity, North Americans remain insufficiently inactive. Consequently, determining what motivates individuals to engage in physical activity becomes increasingly important. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the frequency of negative appearance-related commentary and positive appearance-related commentary could predict physical activity behavior.

Methods:

Participants were young adult women (N = 192) who completed a series of questionnaires to assess the frequency of appearance-related commentary they received and their physical activity behavior.

Results:

A hierarchical regression analysis indicated the overall regression was significant, F (4,187) = 4.73, P < .001, R 2 adj = .07, ΔR 2 = .07), with positive weight/shape appearance-related commentary (β = 470.27, P < .001) significantly predicting physical activity behavior, while controlling for body mass index.

Conclusions:

Providing positive reinforcement via positive weight/shape compliments may be beneficial to motivate physical activity participation.

Restricted access

Kimberley L. Gammage, Breanne Drouin and Larkin Lamarche

Purpose:

The current study compared a single yoga group exercise class and a resistance group exercise class for their effects on state body satisfaction and social physique anxiety in women.

Methods:

A pretest-posttest design was used. Participants (N = 46) completed both a resistance exercise class and yoga class in a counterbalanced order. Measures of body satisfaction and social physique anxiety were completed immediately before and after each class.

Results:

A 2 (time) × 2 (class type) repeatedmeasures multiple analysis of variance showed a significant overall Time × Class Type interaction (F 2,44 = 5.69, P < .01, η p 2 = .21). There was a significant increase in body satisfaction after the yoga class. After both classes, there was a significant decrease in social physique anxiety, but the magnitude of the change was larger after the yoga class than after the resistance class.

Conclusions:

Both types of exercise class were associated with improvements in body image, but there were greater improvements after the yoga class. This study provided evidence of the positive effects of yoga for reducing state social physique anxiety and increasing state body satisfaction, adding to correlational evidence suggesting that yoga is particularly beneficial for improving body image-related outcomes in women.

Restricted access

James Hardy, Kimberley Gammage and Craig Hall

In this descriptive study, the four Ws (i.e., where, when, what, and why) of the use of self-talk were examined. Varsity athletes (78 male, 72 female), with a mean age of 20.68 years (SD = 1.90) read a self-statement oriented definition of self-talk and then answered the four questions in an open-ended format. Athletes reported using self-talk most frequently while partaking in their sports (when), at sport related venues (where). The “what” or content of self-talk use was categorized into five themes: nature, structure, person, task instructions, and miscellaneous. With regard to why athletes use self-talk, two main themes emerged from the data: cognitive and motivational. It was possible to further classify the two themes into seemingly specific and general levels, similar to Paivio’s (1985) classification of athletes’ use of mental imagery. Results for the present study provide descriptive data for the development of a conceptual frame work for the use of self-talk.

Restricted access

Craig R. Hall, James Hardy and Kimberley L. Gammage

Restricted access

Ken R. Lodewyk, Kimberley L. Gammage and Philip J. Sullivan

Increasing dropout rates in senior high school physical education, particularly among females, and unhealthy activity and obesity levels in youth have led to recommendations to assess potential contributing factors in physical education participation. Drawing from gender, body image, and social-cognitive theory, this study investigated relations between body size discrepancy, self-efficacy, test anxiety, and achievement in 316 high school physical education students. Gender differences were noted in body size discrepancy (females reported the desire to have a smaller body). Specifically in females, body size discrepancy predicted test anxiety, which predicted self-efficacy. Self-efficacy predicted achievement in both males and females. The results signal that gender-specific relations among these constructs are important factors to consider in the achievement scores of students in high school physical education. Physical education programs should model curricula and instructional practices that defuse potentially harmful body image discrepancies that seem most poignant in females while engaging all learners to feel competent and safe.

Restricted access

Kimberley L. Gammage, Craig R. Hall and Wendy M. Rodgers

Imagery plays important cognitive and motivational roles in many areas of life, including sport (Paivio, 1985) and exercise (Hausenblas, Hall, Rodgers, & Munroe, 1999). The purpose of the present paper was to examine how the cognitive and motivational roles of exercise imagery vary with gender, frequency of exercise, and activity type. Participants (n = 577) completed the Exercise Imagery Questionnaire (Hausenblas et al„ 1999) which measures appearance, energy, and technique imagery. Participants, regardless of gender, frequency of exercise, or activity type, used appearance imagery most frequently, followed by technique and energy, respectively. Men used significantly more technique imagery than women did, while women used significantly more appearance imagery than men did. In addition, high frequency exercisers (3 or more times per week) used all types of imagery more frequently than low frequency exercisers (2 or fewer times per week). Finally, imagery differences existed based on type of activity.

Restricted access

Mathew Yao, Izabella Ludwa, Lauren Corbett, Panagiota Klentrou, Peter Bonsu, Kimberley Gammage and Bareket Falk

Bone properties, reflected by speed of sound (SOS), and physical activity levels were examined in overweight (OW) girls (n = 19) and adolescents (n = 22), in comparison with normal-weight (NW) girls (n = 21) and adolescents (n = 13). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was higher in NW than in OW in both age groups. Tibial SOS was lower in OW compared with NW in both age groups. MVPA correlated with tibial SOS, once age was partialed out. The results suggest that overweight girls and adolescents are characterized by low tibial SOS, which may be partially attributed to lower physical activity levels.

Restricted access

Kimberley L. Gammage, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis and Craig R. Hall

The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of self-presentational efficacy on social anxiety in an exercise context. Participants for this study were 68 female exercisers. Self-presentational efficacy was manipulated in two groups, high and low efficacy. Individuals in the low efficacy group showed higher levels of three measures of social anxiety (social anxiety in exercise classes M = 17.69, physical appearance anxiety M = 17.69, and social physique anxiety M = 30.89) than those in the high efficacy group (social anxiety in exercise classes M = 12.34, p < .001, physical appearance anxiety M = 12.71, p < .013, and social physique anxiety M = 25.87, p < .003). Furthermore, participants in the low efficacy group (M = 3.47) indicated that they were looking less forward to the upcoming aerobics class compared to those in the high efficacy group (M = 6.68, p < .001). Thus it appears that self-presentational efficacy has a potent influence on social anxiety in exercise contexts. Potential applications to exercise settings and future research are discussed.