Kimberly J. Bodey and Rebecca A. Zakrajsek
Lawrence W. Judge, Terry Crawford, and Kimberly J. Bodey
Approximately 47 million boys and girls between the ages of 5 and 18 years take part in sport activities each year, primarily in agency and community sponsored programs (Ewing & Seefeldt, 2002). The high level of participation requires many youth sport organizations to rely on volunteers, without whom there can be no programs. Yet volunteers receive little formal training to prepare them for their respective coaching endeavors (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2001; Gilbert et al., 2001; Gould, et al., 1990; Weiss & Hayashi, 1996).
Kimberly J. Bodey, Lawrence W. Judge, Erin Gilreath, and Laura Simon
Lawrence W. Judge, Kimberly J. Bodey, and Terry Crawford
Rebecca A. Zakrajsek, E. Earlynn Lauer, and Kimberly J. Bodey
Youth sport has traditionally focused on developing athletes physically, technically, and tactically; however, it is important to consider the purposeful development of mental and emotional sport skills for these competitors. Youth athletes experience various stressors within their sport participation that impact their ability to successfully manage the sport environment. Youth sport coaches have a tremendous influence on their athletes and are in a position to help them develop the necessary skills to effectively confront the stress they experience. In addition, the International Sport Coaching Framework identifies six primary functions of coaches to help “fulfil the core purpose of guiding improvement and development” of youth athletes (International Council for Coaching Excellence, 2013, p. 16). This article outlines the developmental stage considerations for working with youth athletes and a tool coaches can use to integrate mental skills development strategies into sport practices. Utilizing the evidence-based steps within this article fosters a holistic and developmentally appropriate approach to performance enhancement and personal development, as both are important objectives for youth sport coaches.
Rebecca A. Zakrajsek, Jesse A. Steinfeldt, Kimberly J. Bodey, Scott B. Martin, and Sam J. Zizzi
Although there appears to be greater acceptance and use of sport psychology (SP), fully integrating SP consultants and services into college athletic programs has yet to occur in most institutions. Decisions to initiate, continue, or terminate SP services are often made by coaches. Therefore, college coaches with access to services were interviewed to explore their beliefs and expectations about SP service use and how an SP consultant could work effectively with them and their athletes. Using consensual qualitative research methods, three domains in coaches’ perceptions of SP consultants were revealed: who they are, what they do, and how they do it. Findings illustrate the importance of being “on the same page” with coaches, developing self-reliant athletes, and making an impact while remaining in a supporting role.
Lawrence W. Judge, Kimberly J. Bodey, David Bellar, Christine Brooks, and Terry Crawford
In recent years, large scale sport organizations and national governing bodies have produced coaching education programs to prepare coaches to teach and mentor athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine: a) track & field coaches’ familiarity with the National Standards for Sport Coaches, b) the alignment of United States Track & Field (USATF) Developmental, Level I, and Level II coaching education programs with the National Standards for Sport Coaches, and c) the alignment of USATF Developmental, Level I, and Level II coaching education programs with coaches’ perceived needs for subject matter training. A 39-item survey was administered during a USATF certification course to measure coaches’ familiarity and perceptions. The results showed the vast majority of coaches (75.2%) were not familiar with the National Standards. At the time of assessment, the Developmental, Level I, and Level II courses were partially aligned with 25 of 40 standards at the Level 1, Level 3, or Level 5 accreditation levels. The courses were not aligned with 15 of 40 standards at any accreditation level. The majority of deficiencies existed in Domain 2: Safety and Injury Prevention, Domain 7: Organization and Administration, and Domain 8: Evaluation. While the USATF coaching education curriculum is partially aligned with many, but not all, of the national standards, the curriculum appears to contain subject matter training that coaches perceived as needed. Curricular revisions, including future directions of the USATF coaching education program, such as new courses and innovative use of technology, are presented.
Lindsey E. Eberman, Kimberly J. Bodey, Rebecca Zakrajsek, Madeline McGuire, and Adam Simpson
The National Standards for Sport Coaches (2006) acknowledges that differences exist in athletes’ ability to tolerate heat. As such, Domain 2: Safety and Injury Prevention (S7-10), Domain 3: Physical Conditioning (S12-13), and Domain 7: Organization and Administration (S34) list expectations for coaches’ ability to recognize and respond to heat illness. However, only the American Red Cross of Greater Indianapolis (Domain 2 specific) and 13 programs are accredited by NCACE. Moreover, on-line trainings frequently used to educate novice interscholastic and recreational sport coaches provide only a cursory review of heat illness precautions, symptoms, and remedies.
The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify changes in coaches’ actual and perceived knowledge after an on-line educational intervention, as well as determine whether the educational intervention will decrease the knowledge gap.
A pre-test/post-test design was used to identify the effect of an educational intervention on perceived and actual knowledge of sport coaches.
Coaches (n=19; male=14, female=5) were solicited via email made available by the Indiana High School Athletic Association and the Indiana Youth Soccer Association – Olympic Development Program.
The Perceived Knowledge Questionnaire (five-item survey) and an actual knowledge assessment (two versions of 19-item quiz) were used to measure the coaches’ perceived and actual knowledge about the prevention, recognition, and treatment of exertional heat illnesses. Participants completed the “Beat the Heat: Be a Better Coach in Extreme Environmental Conditions” educational intervention.
Coaches completed the on-line educational module including pre-test and post-tests evaluations of actual and perceived knowledge.
Researchers performed three separate paired t-tests to identify the effect of the educational intervention on the dependent variables: actual knowledge, perceived knowledge, and knowledge gap. Significance was set a-prior at p<0.05.
Participants demonstrated a significant 18.1% improvement (t18=-4.877, p<0.001, ES=0.62) in actual knowledge scores. Perceived knowledge also significantly improved (t18=-2.585, p=0.019, ES=0.25). Knowledge gap, the difference between actual knowledge and perceived knowledge, became significantly smaller (t18=4.850, p<0.001, ES=0.63).
Results indicate the on-line educational intervention improved actual knowledge, perceived knowledge, and decreased the knowledge gap. Additional large scale study of this intervention is warranted.
Lawrence W. Judge, David Bellar, Kimberly J. Bodey, Bruce Craig, Michael Prichard, and Elizabeth Wanless
The purpose of this study was to determine if NCAA Division I and III men’s basketball programs were in compliance with recommended pre- and post-activity stretching protocols. Questionnaires were sent to 500 NCAA Division I and Division III programs in the United States. Seventy-six coaches (75 males & 1 female) participated in the study. Chi-Square analysis (χ2(3,n=69) = 42.29, p≤0.001) indicated a greater combined percentage of static/pnf/ballistic stretches (10.14%, n=7) and combination of stretches (57.97%, n=40) than expected as compared to dynamic stretches (31.89%, n=22). Participants were asked during what period (pre- or post-activity) stretching should be emphasized. The results were significantly different from expected (χ2(4,n=76) = 129.28, p≤0.001), with a greater percentage of pre-activity stretches (26.31%, n=20) and both pre- and post-activity of stretches (60.52%, n=46) being reported as compared to post-activity stretches (13.15%, n=10). Some results seemed to be in conflict with current recommendations in the literature regarding pre-activity stretching practices.