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Heather Hayes Betz, Jonathan Myers, Alyssa Jaffe, Kimberly Smith and Ronald Dalman

Background:

Quantifying lifetime physical activity using self-reported measures is challenging due to reliance on recall, especially in older populations. The purpose of this study was to determine the 1-year reproducibility of the Veterans Physical Activity Questionnaire (VAPAQ) in a cohort of patients with documented abdominal aortic aneurysm disease (AAA).

Methods:

Subjects included men (n = 52) and women (n = 3) enrolled in AAA STOP, a randomized trial designed to test the ability of supervised exercise training to modify AAA biology and early disease progression.

Results:

The overall correlation coefficient for lifetime recreational energy expenditure between the 2 examinations was 0.93 (P < .001), with an overall difference of 26 kcal/week, a typical error (standard deviation of the differences) of 171 kcals/week, and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 15.5%.

Conclusions:

The VAPAQ is a reproducible tool to quantify lifetime energy expenditure in older adults with documented vascular disease.

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Jonathan Myers, Mandi Dupain, Andrew Vu, Alyssa Jaffe, Kimberly Smith, Holly Fonda and Ronald Dalman

As part of a home-based rehabilitation program, 24 older adult patients (71 ± 3 years) with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease underwent 3 days (12 awake hr/day) of activity monitoring using an accelerometer (ACC), a pedometer, and a heart rate (HR) monitor, and recorded hourly activity logs. Subjects then underwent an interview to complete a 3-day activity recall questionnaire (3-DR). Mean energy expenditure (EE) in kcals/ day for HR, ACC, and 3-DR were 1,687 ± 458, 2,068 ± 529, and 1,974 ± 491, respectively. Differences in EE were not significant between 3-DR and ACC, but HR differed from both ACC (p < .001) and 3-DR (p < .01). ACC and 3-DR had the highest agreement, with a coefficient of variation of 7.9% and r = .86. Thus, ACC provided a reasonably accurate reflection of EE based the criterion measure, an activity recall questionnaire. ACC can be effectively used to monitor EE to achieve an appropriate training stimulus during home-based cardiac rehabilitation.

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Kimberly A. Smith, Michael Gallagher, Anne E. Hays, Fredric L. Goss and Robert Robertson

Background:

Pedometers are most accurate at measuring steps, less accurate at estimating distance, and even less accurate at estimating kilocalorie expenditure. The purpose of this investigation was to create a Physical Activity Index (PAI) using pedometer step counts and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) to enhance the ability to estimate kilocalorie expenditure during walking exercise.

Methods:

Thirty-two females performed 3 counterbalanced walking bouts. During each bout, oxygen consumption, RPE, and step counts were measured. The PAI was calculated as the product of RPE and step count for each of the bouts.

Results:

Concurrent validation of the PAI was established using VO2 as the criterion variable. A multiple regression analysis revealed a strong, positive relation between PAI score and VO2 (r = .91). Data were then used to develop a statistical model to estimate kcal expenditure using the PAI score as the predictor variable.

Conclusion:

The PAI was found to be an accurate method of estimating kcal expenditure and is a simple, unobtrusive and inexpensive tool which may be used in public health settings.

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Alan L. Smith, Sarah Ullrich-French, Eddie Walker II and Kimberly S. Hurley

The purpose of this study was to (a) describe peer relationship profiles of youth sport participants and (b) assess the motivational salience of these profiles by examining profile group differences on sport motivation-related variables. Youth sport camp participants (N = 243) ages 10 to 14 years (M = 11.8, SD = 1.2) completed a multisection questionnaire that contained sport-contextualized measures of perceived friendship quality (positive, conflict), perceived peer acceptance, perceived competence, enjoyment, anxiety, self-presentational concerns, and self-determined motivation. The positive friendship quality, friendship conflict, and peer acceptance responses were cluster-analyzed, yielding five peer relationship profiles that were consistent with expectations based on previous research (i.e., Seidman et al., 1999). Profile differences were obtained for all motivation-related variables and were in theoretically consistent directions. Those young athletes categorized in more adaptive peer relationship profiles had more adaptive motivation-related responses. The findings support theoretical perspectives on social relationships and motivation as well as the efficacy of a person-centered approach to the examination of peer relationships in sport.

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Michael H. Stone, Kimberly Sanborn, Lucille L. Smith, Harold S. O'Bryant, Tommy Hoke, Alan C. Utter, Robert L. Johnson, Rhonda Boros, Joseph Hruby, Kyle C. Pierce, Margaret E. Stone and Brindley Garner

The purpose of this investigation was to study the efficacy of two dietary supplements on measures of body mass, body composition, and performance in 42 American football players. Group CM (n = 9) received creatine monohy-drate, Group P (n = 11) received calcium pyruvate. Group COM (n = 11) received a combination of calcium pyruvate (60%) and creatine (40%), and Group PL received a placebo. Tests were performed before (Tl) and after (T2) the 5-week supplementation period, during which the subjects continued their normal training schedules. Compared to P and PL. CM and COM showed significantly greater increases for body mass, lean body mass, 1 repetition maximum (RM) bench press, combined 1 RM squat and bench press, and static vertical jump (SVJ) power output. Peak rate of force development for SVJ was significantly greater for CM compared to P and PL. Creatine and the combination supplement enhanced training adaptations associated with body mass/composition, maximum strength, and SVJ; however, pyruvate supplementation alone was ineffective.