This study examined how goal conflict influences the pattern of the moderating effects of intention stability on the intention-behavior relations in the context of physical activity participation. A longitudinal study of 136 young adult students with three waves of data collection (a 2-week interval between waves) was conducted. Results showed a significant three-way interaction among intention, goal conflict, and intention stability in explaining vigorous-intensity physical activity (ß = -.25, p < .05). Consistent with our expectation, the pattern of the three-way interaction revealed that when the level of goal conflict was low, the intention-behavior relations were stronger with stable intentions and weaker with unstable intentions. However, when the level of goal conflict was high, the intention-behavior relations were weaker with stable intentions and stronger with unstable intentions. Possible underlying processes of goal conflict and intention stability on the intention-behavior relations are discussed.
Kin-Kit Li, Sheung-Tak Cheng and Helene H. Fung
This study compared message-framing effects on physical activity (PA) across age and gender groups. Participants included 111 younger and 100 older adults (68% were women), randomly assigned to read gain-framed or loss-framed PA messages in promotion pamphlets, and who wore accelerometers for the following 14 days. Using regression analyses controlling for demographic and health factors, we found significant age-by-gender-by-framing interactions predicting self-report (B = −4.39, p = .01) and accelerometer-assessed PA (B = −2.44, p = .02) during the follow-up period. Gain-framed messages were more effective than loss-framed messages in promoting PA behaviors only among older men. We speculated that the age-related positivity effect, as well as the age and gender differences in issue involvement, explained the group differences in framing. In addition, more time availability and higher self-efficacy among older men might have contributed to the results.
Kin-Kit Li, Lorna Ng, Sheung-Tak Cheng and Helene H. Fung
It has been suggested that gain-framed messages are more effective than loss-framed messages in promoting low-risk health behaviors such as physical activity. Because of a heightened health concern and possible medical complications, older adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) may consider physical activity to be risky. This study examined whether a reverse message-framing effect would be found among older adults with T2D. The participants included 211 sedentary and older adults with T2D recruited from an outpatient clinic. The participants were randomly assigned to receive either gain-framed or loss-framed messages and wore an accelerometer to monitor their physical activity for 2 weeks. The participants who received loss-framed messages were more physically active than those who received gain-framed messages (β = 0.13, p = .033). This loss-frame advantage might be attributable to the heightened perceived risks among older outpatients with T2D and the temporarily activated prevention-focused orientation in a clinical setting.
Sandra L. Gibbons, Vicki Ebbeck, Rebecca Y. Concepcion and Kin-Kit Li
This study investigated the effectiveness of an 8-month Team Building through Physical Challenges (TBPC; Glover & Midura, 1992) program on the self-perceptions and perceived social regard of middle school physical education students (N = 1802). Data were analyzed using multilevel analyses where midpoint and final evaluations were conducted separately. Results revealed that at the midpoint evaluation, students in the experimental and control conditions were not different on any of the subscales assessed. At the end of the program, students in the experimental condition, compared with those in the control condition, showed significantly higher scores on 6 of the 10 subscales assessed and the effect sizes were medium to very large. The findings support the effectiveness of the TBPC program in creating positive psychological outcomes for students in a field-based setting.