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Sachi Ikudome, Kou Kou, Kisho Ogasa, Shiro Mori and Hiroki Nakamoto

This study examines whether the positive effect of choice on motor learning in a dart-throwing task varies by intrinsic motivation. Participants were allocated to a highly motivated or less-motivated group based on measured task motivation and randomly to a Choice or No Choice group. In Experiment 1, participants in the Choice group chose their dart color. In Experiment 2, they chose when to observe a model demonstration. Results showed that the effect of choice on motor learning differed between highly and less-motivated participants in Experiment 1 (i.e., interaction between motivation and choice) but not Experiment 2 (i.e., main effects of motivation and choice). Specifically, motor learning was enhanced in less-motivated but not highly motivated participants when choosing dart color, while it was enhanced regardless of initial intrinsic motivation when choosing model-demonstration time. Therefore, external provision of choice in a motor-learning situation may not be equally effective across learners.