This trial aimed to examine the effect of whey protein hydrolysate intake before and after exercise sessions on endurance performance and recovery in elite orienteers during a training camp. Eighteen elite orienteers participated in a randomized controlled intervention trial during a 1-week training camp (13 exercise sessions). Half of the runners (PRO-CHO) ingested a protein drink before (0.3 g kg−1) and a protein-carbohydrate drink after (0.3 g protein kg−1 and 1 g carbohydrate kg−1) each exercise session. The others ingested energy and timematched carbohydrate drinks (CHO). A 4-km run-test with 20 control points was performed before and on the last day of the intervention. Blood and saliva were obtained in the mornings, before and after run-tests, and after the last training session. During the intervention, questionnaires were fulfilled regarding psychological sense of performance capacity and motivation. PRO-CHO and not CHO improved performance in the 4-km run-test (interaction p < .05). An increase in serum creatine kinase was observed during the week, which was greater in CHO than PRO-CHO (interactionp < .01). Lactate dehydrogenase (p < .001) and cortisol (p = .057) increased during the week, but the change did not differ between groups. Reduction in sense of performance capacity during the intervention was greater in CHO (p < .05) than PRO-CHO. In conclusion, ingestion of whey protein hydrolysate before and after each exercise session improves performance and reduces markers of muscle damage during a strenuous 1-week training camp. The results indicate that protein supplementation in conjunction with each exercise session facilitates the recovery from strenuous training in elite orienteers.
Mette Hansen, Jens Bangsbo, Jørgen Jensen, Bo Martin Bibby and Klavs Madsen
Ulrika Andersson-Hall, Stefan Pettersson, Fredrik Edin, Anders Pedersen, Daniel Malmodin and Klavs Madsen
Purpose: This study investigated how postexercise intake of placebo (PLA), protein (PRO), or carbohydrate (CHO) affected fat oxidation (FO) and metabolic parameters during recovery and subsequent exercise. Methods: In a cross-over design, 12 moderately trained women (VO2max 45 ± 6 ml·min−1·kg−1) performed three days of testing. A 23-min control (CON) incremental FO bike test (30–80% VO2max) was followed by 60 min exercise at 75% VO2max. Immediately postexercise, subjects ingested PLA, 20 g PRO, or 40 g CHO followed by a second FO bike test 2 h later. Results: Maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and the intensity at which MFO occurs (Fatmax) increased at the second FO test compared to the first following all three postexercise drinks (MFO for CON = 0.28 ± 0.08, PLA = 0.57 ± 0.13, PRO = 0.52 ± 0.08, CHO = 0.44 ± 0.12 g fat·min−1; Fatmax for CON = 41 ± 7, PLA = 54 ± 4, PRO = 55 ± 6, CHO = 50 ± 8 %VO2max, p < 0.01 for all values compared to CON). Resting FO, MFO, and Fatmax were not significantly different between PLA and PRO, but lower for CHO. PRO and CHO increased insulin levels at 1 h postexercise, though both glucose and insulin were equal with PLA at 2 h postexercise. Increased postexercise ketone levels only occurred with PLA. Conclusion: Protein supplementation immediately postexercise did not affect the doubling in whole body fat oxidation seen during a subsequent exercise trial 2 h later. Neither did it affect resting fat oxidation during the postexercise period despite increased insulin levels and attenuated ketosis. Carbohydrate intake dampened the increase in fat oxidation during the second test, though a significant increase was still observed compared to the first test.