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Human Resource Management in Olympic Sport Organizations

Kyriaki Kaplanidou

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Environmental Protection in Nature-Based Sport Events: The Case of Olympus Marathon

Stavros Triantafyllidis and Kyriaki Kaplanidou

Mountain running events have increased, making efforts toward a more environmentally sustainable organized context. This case study examines the environmental orientation and the carbon offsetting behavioral intentions among participants of the Olympus Marathon, the annual mountain running event in Mount Olympus, Greece. The organizers of Olympus Marathon are interested in developing an environmentally friendlier approach to the event by implementing a new pro-environmental plan which targets the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions generated by their consumers’ (runners) travel behaviors. This case study provides students the opportunity to (a) analyze mountain runners’ environmental orientation to justify the implementation of pro-environmental practices in nature-based sport events, (b) investigate mountain runners’ voluntary carbon offsetting behavioral intentions, and (c) develop effective a voluntary carbon offsetting emission marketing plan to support pro-environmental actions in sport events.

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The Meaning and Measurement of a Sport Event Experience Among Active Sport Tourists

Kyriaki Kaplanidou and Christine Vogt

Destinations use sport events to attract participants and spectators, who then hold perceptions of both the sport event and destination. This research aimed to a) understand how active sport tourists perceive the meaning of a sport event experience and b) develop a scale for that meaning. Both aims are studied in a post trip context as evaluative research. Two focus groups were used to understand the meaning of the sport event experience among active sport tourists. Results from the focus groups suggest participants attribute meanings related to organizational, environmental, physical, social, and emotional aspects of the sport event experience. Next, semantic differential items were developed to measure the meaning of a sport event experience in the post trip phase. The items were tested with two different sport event participant samples using surveys. A uni-dimensionsal scale of 11 semantic differential items emerged. These items provide a measure for the evaluative meaning of a sport event experience.

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The Role of Media in Enhancing People’s Perception of Hosting a Mega Sport Event: The Case of Pyeongchang’s Winter Olympics Bids

Ari Kim, Moonhoon Choi, and Kyriaki Kaplanidou

Residents’ support for hosting the Olympic Games is crucial for a bid to succeed in the Olympic host-city selection process. Because of the vital role of the media in framing public perceptions of Olympic bids, the purpose of this study was to examine media coverage of hosting the Olympic Games during the Olympic host-city bid process. A quantitative content analysis was conducted on newspaper articles about Pyeongchang, Korea. Pyeongchang was a candidate city for 3 consecutive bids for the Winter Olympic Games, and it finally won its latest bid to host the 2018 Games. Six hundred Korean newspaper articles were collected for analysis. The results indicated that positive, nationwide discussions of hosting the Olympic Games were presented during the successful bid. Infrastructure legacy was mentioned frequently and dominantly for both successful and unsuccessful bid periods, whereas the presence of sport-development and sociocultural-legacy themes increased in the latest, successful, bid. In addition, extensive coverage related to celebrity endorsement was found during the successful bid.

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Recurring Sport Events and Destination Image Perceptions: Impact on Active Sport Tourist Behavioral Intentions and Place Attachment

Kyriaki Kaplanidou, Jeremy S. Jordan, Daniel Funk, and Lynn L. Ridinger

Hosting recurring sport events can be a solution for sustainable tourism development resulting in destination loyalty and higher place attachment levels. This study proposes active event sport tourists may include in their destination perceptions a number of destination and event attributes, given the direct association of the event with the place. The feasibility of the convergence of event and destination image attributes in one scale was explored and that scale’s influence on place attachment and on specific active sport tourists’ behaviors was examined. Data were collected from sport event tourist participants (n = 2,015) at a recurring marathon event via an online survey. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed the factor structure of destination image to include event characteristics. Regression analysis was used to test the impact of destination image factors on behavioral intentions and place attachment and supported the predictive validity of destination image factors. Implications for event and destination marketers are discussed.

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Consumers’ Comparative Evaluative Judgment of Athlete Endorsers

Shintaro Sato, Yong Jae Ko, Kyriaki (Kiki) Kaplanidou, and Daniel P. Connaughton

The purpose of this study was to examine consumers’ comparative judgment of athlete endorsers in back-toback advertisement settings. Drawing on the inclusion/exclusion model (Schwarz & Bless, 2007), the authors argue that (a) a recently observed athlete endorser impacts consumer judgment of subsequently presented endorsers, and (b) the valence of the impact depends on brand category membership of the consecutively presented endorsers. A 2 (representative endorser activation: present vs. absent) × 2 (brand category membership: membership vs. nonmembership) between-subjects design was administered across three experiments. Results demonstrated that the presence of a representative endorser increased a subsequently presented endorser’s perceived expertise when that subsequent endorser represented the same brand category. Results also demonstrated that the presence of a representative endorser decreased a subsequently presented endorser’s perceived expertise when that subsequent endorser did not represent the same brand category. Overall, these findings support both assimilation and contrast effects. The authors argue how this outcome can assist advertising managers to strategically position appropriate endorsers in marketing platforms.