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  • Author: Lars B. Andersen x
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Jakob Tarp, Lars B. Andersen and Lars Østergaard

Background:

Cycling to and from school is an important source of physical activity (PA) in youth but it is not captured by the dominant objective method to quantify PA. The aim of this study was to quantify the underestimation of objectively assessed PA caused by cycling when using accelerometry.

Methods:

Participants were 20 children aged 11 to 14 years from a randomized controlled trial performed in 2011. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry with the addition of heart rate monitoring during cycling to school. Global positioning system (GPS) was used to identify periods of cycling to school.

Results:

Mean minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during round-trip commutes was 10.8 (95% CI: 7.1−16.6). Each kilometer of cycling meant an underestimation of 9314 (95% CI: 7719−11238) counts and 2.7 (95% CI: 2.1−3.5) minutes of MVPA. Adjusting for cycling to school increased estimates of MVPA/day by 6.0 (95% CI: 3.8−9.6) minutes.

Conclusions:

Cycling to and from school contribute substantially to levels of MVPA and to mean counts/min in children. This was not collected by accelerometers. Using distance to school in conjunction with self-reported cycling to school may be a simple tool to improve the methodology.

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Lars Østergaard, Anders Grøntved, Line Anita B. Børrestad, Karsten Froberg, Michael Gravesen and Lars B. Andersen

Background:

Previous studies have been inconclusive concerning the effect of active transport on BMI. Our objective was to investigate the association between travel mode and BMI in a large community-based sample of Danish adolescents.

Methods:

A cross-sectional survey on health and lifestyle was distributed to all pupils from the 7th to 9th grade (12–16 years of age) in the municipality of Odense, Denmark.

Results:

Cycling to school was associated with 0.38 lower BMI compared to passive travelers (P = .006) after multivariable adjustment. Cycling to school was associated with 0.55 lower odds of being overweight (P < .001) and 0.30 lower (P < .001) odds of being obese compared to individuals using passive transport. Walking to school was associated with 0.65 lower odds of being overweight (P = .006). Post hoc pairwise comparisons of ethnicity revealed that adolescents of foreign ethnicity were more likely to be walkers or passive commuters (75.14% vs. 29.72%) than cyclists (24.86% vs. 70.28%; P < .001) compared to subjects of Danish ethnicity.

Conclusions:

Cycling to school was associated with lower BMI and lower odds of being overweight or obese compared to passive travel in Danish adolescents, whereas walking to school was associated with lower odds of being overweight.

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Magnus Dencker, Bianca Hermansen, Anna Bugge, Karsten Froberg and Lars B. Andersen

This study investigated the predictors of aerobic fitness (VO2PEAK) in young children on a population-base. Participants were 436 children (229 boys and 207 girls) aged 6.7 ± 0.4 yrs. VO2PEAK was measured during a maximal treadmill exercise test. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometers. Total body fat and total fat free mass were estimated from skinfold measurements. Regression analyses indicated that significant predictors for VO2PEAK per kilogram body mass were total body fat, maximal heart rate, sex, and age. Physical activity explained an additional 4–7%. Further analyses showed the main contributing factors for absolute values of VO2PEAK were fat free mass, maximal heart rate, sex, and age. Physical activity explained an additional 3–6%.

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Thiago R.S. Tenório, P. Babu Balagopal, Lars B. Andersen, Raphael M. Ritti-Dias, James O. Hill, Mara C. Lofrano-Prado and Wagner L. Prado

Purpose: To investigate the effects of a low- versus high-intensity aerobic training on biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in adolescents with obesity. Methods: Sixty-two adolescents with obesity [age = 15 (14) y, body mass index = 34.87 (4.22) kg·m−2] were randomized to receive either a high-intensity training (HIT, n = 31) or a low-intensity training (LIT, n = 31) for 24 weeks. All participants also received nutritional, psychological, and clinical counseling. Leptin, total and subtype leukocyte counts, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, myeloperoxidase, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were obtained at baseline and after 24 weeks. Results: HIT reduced neutrophils [from 4.4 (1.9) to 3.6 (1.3) µL−1 × 103; P = .01] and monocytes [from 7.2 (2.5) to 5.2 (1.8) µL−1 × 102; P < .01], but LIT increased neutrophils [from 4.5 (1.7) to 5.2 (3.3) µL−1 × 103; P = .01]. Although tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased in LIT [from 13.3 (7.5) to 17.7 (10.8) pg·mL−1; P = .01], it decreased in HIT [from 12.4 (7.5) to 11.3 (6.2) pg·mL−1; P = .01]. No changes in leukocyte counts, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and homeostasis assessment model for insulin resistance were observed. Conclusions: Both HIT and LIT improved the inflammatory profile. The study, however, indicated that the number of biomarkers and the magnitude of changes were higher in the HIT compared with LIT.

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Chris Riddoch, Dawn Edwards, Angie Page, Karsten Froberg, Sigmund A. Anderssen, Niels Wedderkopp, Søren Brage, Ashley R. Cooper, Luis B. Sardinha, Maarike Harro, Lena Klasson-Heggebø, Willem van Mechelen, Colin Boreham, Ulf Ekelund, Lars Bo Andersen and The European Youth Heart Study Team

Background:

The aim of the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS) is to establish the nature, strength, and interactions between personal, environmental, and lifestyle influences on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in European children.

Methods:

The EYHS is an international study measuring CVD risk factors, and their associated influences, in children. Relationships between these independent factors and risk of disease will inform the design of CVD interventions in children. A minimum of 1000 boys and girls ages 9 and 15 y were recruited from four European countries—Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Portugal. Variables measured included physical, biochemical, lifestyle, psychosocial, and sociodemographic data.

Results:

Of the 5664 children invited to participate, 4169 (74%) accepted. Response rates for most individual tests were moderate to high. All test protocols were well received by the children.

Conclusions:

EYHS protocols are valid, reliable, acceptable to children, and feasible for use in large, field-based studies.