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Lawrence W. Judge and Jeanmarie R. Burke

Purpose:

To determine the effects of training sessions, involving high-resistance, low-repetition bench press exercise, on strength recovery patterns, as a function of gender and training background.

Methods:

The subjects were 12 athletes (6 males and 6 females) and age-matched college students of both genders (4 males and 4 females). The subjects completed a 3-wk resistance training program involving a bench press exercise, 3 d/wk, to become familiar with the testing procedure. After the completion of the resistance training program, the subjects, on three consecutive weeks, participated in two testing sessions per week, baseline session and recovery session. During the testing sessions, subjects performed fve sets of the bench press exercise at 50% to 100% of perceived fve repetition maximum (5-RM). Following the weekly baseline sessions, subjects rested during a 4-, 24-, or 48-h recovery period. Strength measurements were estimates of one repetition maximum (1-RM), using equivalent percentages for the number of repetitions completed by the subject at the perceived 5-RM effort of the bench press exercise.

Results:

The full-factorial ANOVA model revealed a Gender by Recovery Period by Testing Session interaction effect, F(2, 32) = 10.65; P < .05. Among male subjects, decreases in estimated 1-RM were detected at the 4- and 24-h recovery times. There were no differences in muscle strength among the female subjects, regardless of recovery time.

Conclusions:

For bench press exercises, using different recovery times of 48 h for males and 4 h for females may optimize strength development as a function of gender.

Open access

Lawrence W. Judge, Terry Crawford and Kimberly J. Bodey

Approximately 47 million boys and girls between the ages of 5 and 18 years take part in sport activities each year, primarily in agency and community sponsored programs (Ewing & Seefeldt, 2002). The high level of participation requires many youth sport organizations to rely on volunteers, without whom there can be no programs. Yet volunteers receive little formal training to prepare them for their respective coaching endeavors (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2001; Gilbert et al., 2001; Gould, et al., 1990; Weiss & Hayashi, 1996).

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Kimberly J. Bodey, Lawrence W. Judge, Erin Gilreath and Laura Simon

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Lawrence W. Judge, David Bellar, Erin Gilreath and Laura Simon

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Lawrence W. Judge, Kimberly J. Bodey and Terry Crawford

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James E. Johnson, Lawrence W. Judge and Elizabeth Wanless

Incorporating a national competition with the traditional case teaching method offers a unique and intense learning experience beyond what can be achieved in a typical classroom format. This paper discusses a graduate Sport Administration experience from preparation to presentation for students and faculty in the case study competition annually sponsored by the College Sport Research Institute (CSRI). Included is a thorough review of the case method highlighting what to expect from adopting this alternative teaching technique. The role of the faculty advisor is explained from both a theoretical and functional perspective with particular attention given to advising in a competition format. Student learning experiences were assessed using open-ended survey questions designed to encourage student reflection. Although students reported an immense time commitment, they were overwhelmingly satisfied with their competition experience that included in-depth learning, essential skill building, and real-world application.

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Lawrence W. Judge, Kimberly J. Bodey, David Bellar, Christine Brooks and Terry Crawford

In recent years, large scale sport organizations and national governing bodies have produced coaching education programs to prepare coaches to teach and mentor athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine: a) track & field coaches’ familiarity with the National Standards for Sport Coaches, b) the alignment of United States Track & Field (USATF) Developmental, Level I, and Level II coaching education programs with the National Standards for Sport Coaches, and c) the alignment of USATF Developmental, Level I, and Level II coaching education programs with coaches’ perceived needs for subject matter training. A 39-item survey was administered during a USATF certification course to measure coaches’ familiarity and perceptions. The results showed the vast majority of coaches (75.2%) were not familiar with the National Standards. At the time of assessment, the Developmental, Level I, and Level II courses were partially aligned with 25 of 40 standards at the Level 1, Level 3, or Level 5 accreditation levels. The courses were not aligned with 15 of 40 standards at any accreditation level. The majority of deficiencies existed in Domain 2: Safety and Injury Prevention, Domain 7: Organization and Administration, and Domain 8: Evaluation. While the USATF coaching education curriculum is partially aligned with many, but not all, of the national standards, the curriculum appears to contain subject matter training that coaches perceived as needed. Curricular revisions, including future directions of the USATF coaching education program, such as new courses and innovative use of technology, are presented.

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Lawrence W. Judge and David Bellar

The discus throw is a complex track and field event combining linear and angular motion. Success in the discus throw necessitates being strong and explosive; but due to the complexity of the event, throwers must be technically sound. The basic throwing technique employed by all discus throwers is similar, but variations are present due to anthropometrics, physical abilities, training, and error influences. Working with a Paralympic discus thrower, that has a physical disability, is a unique coaching challenge that makes it important to individualize the technical model to meet the physical abilities of the athlete.

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Elizabeth A. Wanless, Ryan M. Brewer, James E. Johnson and Lawrence W. Judge

To prepare students for employment in sport, many sport management programs involve students in revenue generation activities, such as ticket or sponsorship sales. Literature evaluating student perceptions of this specific type of experiential learning remains sparse. This constructivist qualitative study evaluated student perceptions of learning from two courses containing experiential revenue generation projects. Data were gathered via structured-question electronic survey. Fifty-one of 60 students participated. Results generally supported previous research conclusions; conducting experiential learning projects increases skill and professional development and offers a realistic career preview but demands significant time commitment. Important contradictions, however, were present in comparison with past literature. The unique nature of sales-based projects involving students in ticket sales and sponsorship sales served as a platform for students to develop critically important interpersonal skills. This benefit was not identified in studies evaluating experiential learning opportunities that did not contain a sales-based component.