Background: To examine longitudinal associations between sedentary behavior and depressive symptoms among adolescent girls. Methods: A 6-year longitudinal study was conducted consisting of 3 waves, each separated by 3 years. Participants’ (n = 249, mean age 12.1 y at baseline) sedentary behaviors were registered using ecological momentary assessment and girls completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Structural equation modeling of cross-lagged panel models was used to test longitudinal and bidirectional associations. Results: The findings showed that the autoregressive effects were stable for sedentary behavior and depressive symptoms. The cross-lagged effects indicated that the depressive symptoms positively predicted sedentary behavior from early to late adolescence. However, sedentary behavior did not predict depressive symptoms across adolescence. Conclusions: This study shows 1-directional long-term effect of depressive symptoms on sedentary behavior in adolescent girls. Future research on longitudinal relationships between sedentary behavior and depressive symptoms among children and adolescents are needed.
Lennart Raudsepp and Kristi Vink
Inga Neissaar and Lennart Raudsepp
The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships between naturally occurring changes in leisure-time physical activity, depressive symptoms and self-efficacy in adolescent girls. We also aimed to test whether depressive symptoms would moderate the self-efficacy-physical activity relationship. Participants were 181 urban adolescent girls. Physical activity was measured using the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall. Self-efficacy and depressive symptoms were assessed using questionnaires. Body height and body mass were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Data were collected on three occasions over a 2-year period. There was a decrease in physical activity and self-efficacy and increase in depressive symptoms across three measurement occasions. There were statistically significant and negative relationships between initial level and change for physical activity and depressive symptoms. Initially higher levels of physical activity were related with initially lower levels of depressive symptoms, and change in physical activity across time was inversely associated with change in levels of depressive symptoms across measurements. There were statistically significant and positive relationships between initial level and change for physical activity and self-efficacy after controlling effect of BMI. Latent growth modeling (LGM) also indicated a moderating effect of depressive symptoms on the self-efficacy-physical activity relationship. Girls who had high initial levels of self-efficacy and smaller increases in depressive symptoms had the lowest decline in physical activity participation. Our results encourage the design of interventions that reduce depressive symptoms and increase self-efficacy as a possible of means of increasing adolescent girls’ physical activity.
Alar Rikberg and Lennart Raudsepp
Lennart Raudsepp and Mati Pääsuke
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the gender differences in kinematics of running at maximal speed and overhand throwing, motor performances, and muscle strength in prepubertal children. Sixty 8-year-old children (33 boys and 27 girls) participated in this study. There were no sex differences with respect to the running kinematics, but in overhand throwing kinematics, motor performances, and muscle strength the boys surpassed the girls significantly (p < .05). However, in sit and reach and balance the girls surpassed the boys. Nonsignificant correlations (r = .20–.40) were found between the majority of variables. These results indicate gender differences in overhand throwing kinematics, motor performances, and muscle strength in prepubertal children.
Lennart Raudsepp and Toivo Jürimäe
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between physical activity and physical fitness and adiposity in a sample of 77 girls, aged 10–11 years. Physical activity was assessed by 7-day physical activity recall by which children reported how much time they spent on low and moderate-to-vigorous physical activities. Physical fitness was measured by EUROFIT test battery. Adiposity was estimated by sum of five skinfolds. The main finding of the study was that moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and adiposity were significant predictors (with 16–34% accounted variance) of physical fitness tests where the body mass affects performance. Indicators of physical activity and adiposity were not significantly related with fitness items requiring muscular strength, balance, flexibility, and speed of limb movement. Furthermore, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and aerobic fitness predicted 22% of variance in adiposity in girls.
Lennart Raudsepp and Roomet Viira
This study examined the relative contributions of sex, social class, socioeconomic status of the family, and exercise behavior of significant others (father, mother, sister, brother, best friend) to the variability of physical activities of 13–15-year-old urban adolescents (N = 475). Physical activity was measured using 7-day physical activity recall. Family income was negatively correlated with physical activity of adolescents. Physical activity of the father, older brother, and best friend was associated with a higher activity level of adolescents (r = 0.24–0.33). Sex and social class of the families accounted for 18% of the variance of the adolescents’ physical activity. When the physical activity of the father, older brother, and best friend were entered into regression analysis, a total of 32% of the variation in adolescents’ physical activity was explained. Physical activity of adolescents is associated with sex, activity levels of significant others, and socioeconomic status of the family.
Lennart Raudsepp and Peep Päll
The purpose of this study was to examine the between-day reproducibility of physical activity across 1 week and determine the stability of physical activity over 2 years. Forty-two children (19 boys, 23 girls) aged 8–9 years at the beginning of the study were followed across 1 week and over a 2-year period. Physical activity was assessed by Caltrac accelerometer. Reproducibility and stability of physical activity was analyzed using Spearman correlations. The results revealed significant Spearman rank order correlations between weekdays (r = 0.64 to 0.79) and weekend days (r = 0.53 to 0.67). Spearman rank order correlations between weekdays and weekend days during two monitoring sessions were consistently lower, ranging from 0.34 to 0.57. It was concluded that the between-day reproducibility of accelerometer monitoring was higher between similar days of the week (weekdays or weekend days). Shortterm stability of physical activity during late childhood was moderate.
Lennart Raudsepp and Peep Päll
The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between fundamental motor skill development and various types of outside-school physical activity. Outside-school physical activity of 133 elementary schoolchildren was measured using a modified observational method validated by O’Hara et al. (18) and Caltrac accelerometers (Hemokinetics, Madison, Wisconsin). Developmental level of overhand throwing and jumping was assessed using total-body developmental sequences. The results revealed that developmental levels of both overhand throwing and jumping were significantly correlated with the skill-specific physical activity (r = .44 and .55 for overhand throwing and jumping, respectively). Caltrac score was not significantly related to jumping and overhand throwing skills. Skill-specific physical activities accounted for 20% of the variance (adjusted R 2) in overhand throwing and 17% of the variance in jumping performance. Findings supported the hypothesis that developmental level of fundamental motor skills would be related with skill-specific outside-school physical activity but not with general level of physical activity of elementary schoolchildren.
Lennart Raudsepp and Eva-Maria Riso
Although an inverse correlation between physical activity and depressive symptoms among older adults has been found in research, this relation has seldom been examined prospectively. Accordingly, the current study examined the reciprocal relations between physical activity and depressive symptoms in Estonian older adults over a 2-year period. A three-wave longitudinal model was tested using cross-lagged analysis for 195 individuals aged over 70 years (mean = 72.1, SD = 2.1; 145 females). Results indicated that a cross-lagged model in which depressive symptoms predicted walking at subsequent time points (higher depressive symptoms were related to fewer walking steps), and walking predicted depressive symptoms at subsequent time points (higher walking steps were related to lower depressive symptoms) was most parsimonious and provided acceptable model fit. These results suggest that reduced physical activity may be a long-term consequence of depressive symptoms in older adults.
Lennart Raudsepp and Eva-Maria Riso
The objective of this study was to examine the prospective relationship and changes in sedentary behavior between adolescent girls, their mothers and best friends over time.
The results are based on 122 girls aged 11–12 years at baseline measurement, their mothers and best friends who completed ecological momentary assessment diary for the assessment of sedentary behavior. All measurements were taken at 3 time points separated by one year. We used structural equation modeling to examine associations among sedentary behavior of adolescent girls, their mothers and best friends.
A linear growth model for adolescent girls’ and their best friends’ sedentary behavior fit the data well, revealing an overall significant increase in sedentary behavior across time. Initial levels of mothers’ and best friends’ sedentary behavior were positively related with sedentary behavior of adolescent girls. The changes of adolescent girls’ and best friends’ sedentary behavior across 3 years were positively related. Cross-lagged panel analysis demonstrated significant reciprocal effects between adolescent girls’ and best friends’ sedentary behavior. Mothers’ sedentary behavior at baseline predicted daughters’ sedentary behavior at 1-year follow-up and vice versa.
From early to midadolescence, changes in adolescent girls’ sedentary behavior were associated with changes in best friends’ sedentary behavior. These findings suggest reciprocal associations between sedentary behavior of adolescent girls and their best friends.