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Li Chen

Athletics-related professional associations are nonprofit and formed voluntarily by athletic administrators or coaches. Because membership enrollment and retention are critical to organizational survival, factors affecting members’ participation should be studied to aid managerial decisions. This study was designed to test a conceptual model and develop a valid Membership Incentive Scale (MIS) to identify important membership incentives. The MIS is based on an underlying theoretical framework and empirical support. Participants (N = 415) from 15 professional associations completed a national survey. The results of factor and data analyses supported the four-factor (Utilitarian, Purposive, Solidary, Informative) incentive model, demonstrated the factorial validity and internal-consistency reliability of the 14-item MIS, and explored the most important factor (Informative Incentives). This article provides an important tool for managers to use to access essential membership incentives for the associations studied, as well as a reference for further studies of membership incentives for these and other organizations.

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Fengjuan Li, Junjun Chen and Miles Baker

While there have been many studies into students’ attitudes toward Physical Education at the school level, far fewer studies have been conducted at the university level, especially in China. This study explored 949 students’ attitudes toward their university Physical Education experiences in four Chinese universities. An intercorrelated model of students’ attitudes toward Physical Education comprised of five dimensions, namely Physical Fitness, Self-Actualization and Social Development, Physical Education Curriculum, Physical Education Teachers, and Physical Education Teaching, was conceptually and empirically developed and tested using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The overall findings suggested that the students had moderately positive attitudes toward Physical Education. More specifically, the findings indicated that students’ attitudes had a significantly positive moderate association with their current participation, a small association with their intended lifelong participation in physical activity outside school, and a significantly positive moderate association with their Physical Education academic achievement. Implications for Physical Education teacher training and curriculum modifications are discussed.

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Yongming Li, Margot Niessen, Xiaoping Chen and Ulrich Hartmann

Context: Different relative aerobic energy contribution (WAER%) has been reported for the 2 women’s Olympic kayaking disciplines (ie, 200 and 500 m). Purpose: To investigate whether the adopted method of energy calculation influences the value of WAER% during kayaking time trials. Methods: Eleven adolescent female kayakers (age 14 ± 1 y, height 172 ± 4 cm, body mass 65.4 ± 4.2 kg, VO2peak 42.6 ± 4.9 mL·min−1·kg−1, training experience 1.5 ± 0.3 y) volunteered to participate in 1 incremental exercise test and 2 time trials (40 and 120 s) on the kayak ergometer. A portable spirometric system was used to measure gas metabolism. Capillary blood was taken from the ear lobe during and after the tests and analyzed for lactate afterward. The method of modified maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (m-MAOD) and the method based on the fast component of oxygen-uptake off-kinetics (PCr-La-O2) were used to calculate the energy contributions. Results: The anaerobic energy portions from m-MAOD were lower than those from PCr-La-O2 in the 40-s (41.9 ± 8.8 vs 52.8 ± 4.0 kJ, P > .05) and 120-s (64.1 ± 27.9 vs 68.2 ± 10.0 kJ, P > .05) time trials, which induced differences of WAER% between m-MAOD and PCr-La-O2 (36.0% vs 30.0% in 40 s, P > .05; 60.9% vs 57.5% in 120 s, P > .05). Conclusions: The reported different WAER% in women’s Olympic kayaking could be partly attributed to the adopted method of energy calculation (ie, m-MAOD vs PCr-La-O2). A fixed method of energy calculation is recommended during the longitudinal assessment on the relative energy contribution in women’s Olympic kayaking.

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Xiaofen Deng Keating, Prithwi Raj Subramaniam, Rulan Shangguan and Li Chen

This study aimed to examine changes in physical education (PE) programs nation-wide from 2006 to 2010 by analyzing the data reported in the Shape of the Nation published by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. Means and standard deviations for numeric variables in the reports were computed. For categorical variables, percentages were calculated. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. The data from this study indicate a significant change in elementary PE as more states have mandated elementary PE and licensed elementary PE teachers. Significant increases in required PE units for high school graduation were also noted, indicating a positive change toward enhancing high school PE. However, the percentages of states with funding for professional development and required PE coordinator decreased significantly, suggesting that more work needs to be done if school PE is to provide the help and support requested by public health agencies.

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Weidong Li, Ping Xiang, Yung-Ju Chen, Xiuye Xie and Yilin Li


The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the impact of the Silverman and Solmon article (1998) on how researchers handle the unit of analysis issue in their field-based intervention research in physical education in the United States and summarize statistical approaches that have been used to analyze the data, and (b) provide recommendations for future field-based intervention research and related statistical analysis.


We identified and coded 50 peer-reviewed, field-based intervention research articles with a coding template, published in Journal of Teaching in Physical Education and Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport from 1998 to January 2016.


Our findings showed that 60% of the articles disregarded the unit of analysis and 80% of the articles applied the interventions to classes/groups, but used individual students as unit of analysis. Eight statistical modeling and analysis approaches were used to address the unit of analysis issue.


These findings provide first empirical evidence that the Silverman and Solmon 1998 article had limited impact on how researchers handle unit of analysis in their field-based intervention research in physical education. This suggests that the issue of unit of analysis remains largely unsolved. To address this problem, two experimental designs and corresponding statistical analysis methods were recommended.

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Ching-Yi Wang, Ming-Hsia Hu, Hui-Ya Chen and Ren-Hau Li

To determine the test–retest reliability and criterion validity of self-reported function in mobility and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in older adults, a convenience sample of 70 subjects (72.9 ± 6.6 yr, 34 male) was split into able and disabled groups based on baseline assessment and into consistently able, consistently disabled, and inconsistent based on repeat assessments over 2 weeks. The criterion validities of the self-reported measures of mobility domain and IADL-physical subdomain were assessed with concurrent baseline measures of 4 mobility performances, and that of the self-reported measure of IADL-cognitive subdomain, with the Mini-Mental State Examination. Test–retest reliability was moderate for the mobility, IADL-physical, and IADL-cognitive subdomains (κ = .51–.66). Those who reported being able at baseline also performed better on physical- and cognitive-performance tests. Those with variable performance between test occasions tended to report inconsistently on repeat measures in mobility and IADL-cognitive, suggesting fluctuations in physical and cognitive performance.

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Robert H. Ferguson, Xiaofen D. Keating, Dwan M. Bridges, Jianmin Guan and Li Chen

This study aimed to determine how California secondary physical education teachers perceive the state mandated youth fitness testing for the 5th, 7th, and 9th grades using Fitnessgram. The participants were secondary school physical education teachers (N = 323). A previously validated attitudinal instrument (Keating & Silverman, 2004a) was used to collect the data. The means and standard deviations for each attitude subdomain and the overall attitudes were computed. MANOVA and ANOVA were employed to test the differences in attitudes by demographic and profession-related variables. Teachers’ overall attitudes toward the Fitnessgram were slightly higher than a neutral attitude, indicating slightly positive attitudes on a 7-point Likert scale (M = 4.47, SD = 1.06). The mean scores for the attitude subdomain of cognitive (i.e., usefulness of fitness test results) and the affective (i.e., enjoyment of implementing fitness tests, and enjoyment of using fitness test results) components were 4.25 (SD = 1.38), 4.90 (SD = 1.15), and 4.39 (SD = 1.17), respectively. The data from the study suggested that teachers marginally agreed that the test results were useful and that they somewhat enjoyed implementing the test. Class size and student grade levels taught were important profession-related variables to consider regarding teacher attitudes toward the Fitnessgram.

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Guohua Zheng, Xin Zheng, Junzhe Li, Tingjin Duan, Kun Ling, Jing Tao and Lidian Chen

This study investigated the effects of Tai Chi compared with no exercise control on the cerebral hemodynamic parameters and other health-related factors in community older adults at risk of ischemic stroke. A total of 170 eligible participants were randomly allocated to Tai Chi or control group. The cerebral hemodynamic parameters and physical fitness risk factors of cardiovascular disease were measured at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. After the 12-week intervention, Tai Chi significantly improved the minimum of blood flow velocity (BFVmin); BFVmean; pulsatility index and resistance index of the right anterior cerebral artery; and BFVmax, BFVmin, and BFVmean parameters of the right middle cerebral artery. Tai Chi training also decreased triglyceride, fasting blood glucose, and homocysteine levels, and improved balance ability. Therefore, the supervised 12-week Tai Chi exercise had potential beneficial effects on cerebral hemodynamics, plasma risk factors, and balance ability in older community adults at risk of ischemic stroke.

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Wei-Jang Yen, Yao-Lung Kuo, Li-Chieh Kuo, Shu-Min Chen, Ta-Shen Kuan and Hsiu-Yun Hsu

To investigate how sensory symptoms impact the motor control of hands, in this study we examined the differences in conventional sensibility assessments and pinch force control in the pinch-holding-up activity (PHUA) test between carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients and healthy controls. CTS patients (n = 82) with 122 affected hands and an equal number of control subjects were recruited to participate in the threshold, discrimination, and PHUA tests. The patients showed significantly poorer hand sensibility and lower efficiency of force adjustment in the PHUA test as compared with the control subjects. Baseline pinch strength and the percentage of maximal pinch strength for the PHUA were significantly higher for the subgroup of sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) of <16 μV than for the subgroup of SNAP of3 16 μV. Using a PHUA perspective to analyze the efficiency of force-adjustment could assist the clinical detection of sensory nerve dysfunction.

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Xiaofen Deng Keating, Louis Harrison, Li Chen, Ping Xiang, Dolly Lambdin, Brian Dauenhauer, Willy Rotich and Jose Castro Piñero

Although substantial inquiry has been made into fitness levels of students, there has been scant examination of knowledge in this domain. This article seeks to review and analyze research on student health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge mastery in K–16 programs by examining studies published in the literature. Two major results emerging from the work are misconceptions about fitness and the lack of an adequate amount of HRF knowledge among students at all educational levels (i.e., elementary, secondary, and college). These results were essentially the same as those found more than 20 years ago, indicating a persistent deficiency in fitness education. In addition, little is understood as to how HRF knowledge contributes to the establishment of lifetime physical activity patterns. Student HRF knowledge determinants as well as effective instructional strategies also need thorough study. Based on these findings, implications for improving student HRF knowledge through physical education are discussed, and recommendations for future research are included.