Insulin resistance (IR) is a common pathophysiological feature of Type 2 diabetes. Although the mechanisms leading to IR are still elusive, evidence has shown that aerobic exercise can reverse this process. To investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on IR, the authors created an IR animal model by feeding C57BL/6 mice a high-fat diet for 8 wk. They then compared the effect of 6 wk of treadmill training (60 min/d) at 75% VO2max on mice in normal-diet (NE) and high-fat-diet (HE) groups with their sedentary control groups. Levels of skeletal-muscle AMPKα (AMP-activated protein kinase α), ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylases), and CPT1 (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1) mRNA and AMPKα, pAMPK-Thr172, ACC, pACC-Ser79, and CPT1 protein expressions were analyzed. In addition, fasting serum levels of insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol were measured. The results demonstrate that 6 wk of exercise increased AMPKα mRNA expression by 11% and 25 % (p < .01) in the NE and HE groups, respectively, and AMPKα protein expression by 37.9% and 20.1% (p < .01) in NE and HE compared with their sedentary control. In addition, ACC mRNA and protein expressions declined, whereas CPT1 mRNA and protein expressions were elevated in both exercise groups compared with sedentary control groups. In addition, pAMPK-Thr172 and pACC-Ser79 expression increased significantly in the NE and HE groups compared with sedentary control groups. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that 6 wk of aerobic exercise can effectively ameliorate IR by increasing the expression of AMPKα and pAMPK-Thr172, thereby activating the key enzymes that facilitate lipid metabolism.
Yanmei Niu, Hong Yuan and Li Fu
Lin Li, Yanxia Li, Chang-hong Wu and Hao Fu
The aim of the current work was to verify three-dimensional directional effects on the reproduction error precision of the human upper limb position. Thirty male subjects without history of upper limb pathology were recruited from Renmin University of China. A three-dimensional position reproduction task in six directions (up, down, left, right, far, and near) was performed by each subject. The results suggested that the proprioceptive sense of upper limb position depends on the direction, with smaller absolute errors in Directions 4 (right) and 5 (far) than in Directions 1 (up), 2 (down), 3 (left), and 6 (near). Proprioception near the end of the elbow joint range of motion may be more reliable and sensitive. Subjects reproduced fewer ranges in the horizontal plane (Directions 3, 5, and 6) and they overshot the target position along the z-axis (vertical direction) except for Direction 6. Overestimations of position in the z-axis may be caused by overestimations of force.
Yumeng Li, Rumit S. Kakar, Marika A. Walker, Yang-Chieh Fu, Timothy S. Oswald, Cathleen N. Brown and Kathy J. Simpson
The purpose of the study was to determine if the intratrunk coordination of axial rotation exhibited by individuals with spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (SF-AIS) during running varies from healthy individuals and how the coordination differs among adjacent trunk-segment pairs. Axial rotations of trunk segments (upper, middle, lower trunk) and pelvis were collected for 11 SF-AIS participants and 11 matched controls during running. Cross-correlation determined the phase lag between the adjacent segment motions. The coupling angle was generated using the vector coding method and classified into 1 of the 4 major, modified coordination patterns: in-phase, anti-phase, superior, and inferior phase. Two-way, mixed-model ANCOVA was employed to test phase lag, cross-correlation r, and time spent in each major coordination pattern. A significantly lower phase lag for SF-AIS was observed compared with controls. Qualitatively, there was a tendency that SF-AIS participants spent less time in anti-phase for middle-lower trunk and lower trunk-pelvis coordinations compared to controls. Phase lag and anti-phase time was significantly increased from cephalic to caudal segment pairs, regardless of group. In conclusion, SF-AIS participants and controls displayed similar patterns of intra-trunk coordination; however, the spinal fusion hindered decoupling of intra-trunk motions particularly between the lower trunk-pelvic motion.