The upper trunk–pelvic coordination patterns used in running are not well understood. The purposes of this study are to (1) test the running speed effect on the upper trunk–pelvis axial rotation coordination and (2) present a step-by-step guide of the relative Fourier phase algorithm, as well as some further issues to consider. A total of 20 healthy young adults were tested under 3 treadmill running speeds using a 3-dimensional motion capture system. The upper trunk and pelvic segmental angles in axial rotation were calculated, and the coordination was quantified using the relative Fourier phase method. Results of multilevel modeling indicated that running speed did not significantly contribute to the changes in coordination in a linear pattern. A qualitative template analysis suggested that participants displayed different change patterns of coordination as running speed increased. Participants did not significantly change the upper trunk and pelvis coordination mode in a linear pattern at higher running speeds, possibly because they employed different motion strategies to achieve higher running speeds and thus displayed large interparticipant variations. For most of our runners, running at a speed deviated from the preferred speed could alter the upper trunk–pelvis coordination. Future studies are still needed to better understand the influence of altered coordination on running performance and injuries.
Yumeng Li, Rumit S. Kakar, Marika A. Walker, Li Guan and Kathy J. Simpson
Robert H. Ferguson, Xiaofen D. Keating, Dwan M. Bridges, Jianmin Guan and Li Chen
This study aimed to determine how California secondary physical education teachers perceive the state mandated youth fitness testing for the 5th, 7th, and 9th grades using Fitnessgram. The participants were secondary school physical education teachers (N = 323). A previously validated attitudinal instrument (Keating & Silverman, 2004a) was used to collect the data. The means and standard deviations for each attitude subdomain and the overall attitudes were computed. MANOVA and ANOVA were employed to test the differences in attitudes by demographic and profession-related variables. Teachers’ overall attitudes toward the Fitnessgram were slightly higher than a neutral attitude, indicating slightly positive attitudes on a 7-point Likert scale (M = 4.47, SD = 1.06). The mean scores for the attitude subdomain of cognitive (i.e., usefulness of fitness test results) and the affective (i.e., enjoyment of implementing fitness tests, and enjoyment of using fitness test results) components were 4.25 (SD = 1.38), 4.90 (SD = 1.15), and 4.39 (SD = 1.17), respectively. The data from the study suggested that teachers marginally agreed that the test results were useful and that they somewhat enjoyed implementing the test. Class size and student grade levels taught were important profession-related variables to consider regarding teacher attitudes toward the Fitnessgram.