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Mary Frances Heishman and Linda Bunker

Fifty-five lacrosse players from five countries (Australia, Canada, England, the United States, and Wales) competing in the 1986 Lacrosse World Cup Tournament completed a questionnaire regarding their use of mental preparation in training and competition. The findings revealed that 81 % of the subjects considered mental preparation to be very important or extremely important in preparing for competition, and only 2% considered it to be unimportant. A one-way ANOVA indicated a significant difference among the countries on 3 of 10 variables studied. A significant difference was demonstrated between lacrosse teams from various countries in the use of visualization/imagery and frequency of dreams about play (Canada made most frequent use). There was also a significant difference in the frequency of mental training received from a trained sport psychologist. Perhaps not coincidentally, the lacrosse team that had the most frequent contact with a trained sport psychologist (Australia) was the most successful team at the tournament.

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Linda K. Bunker and Frances S. Scruby

Nancy Langhorne Astor, the first woman member of English Parliament, used sports as an asset in promoting worthy political causes and as a force in advocating women’s health issues. She championed childhood education and through her sponsorship of new facilities and sporting organizations made sports a much more acceptable pursuit for women of her era. Many strident criticisms of her behavior can be dismissed in light of her era’s gender bias against which she was a warrior her entire life. This retrospective study of her life leads to new interpretations of her contributions to her 20th Century world.

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Linda K. Bunker and Margaret S. Kelley

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David Cook, Bruce Gansneder, Robert Rotella, Christopher Malone, Linda Bunker and DeDe Owens

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Darlene A. Kluka, Phyllis A. Love and Linda K. Bunker

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B. Ann Boyce, Thomas Johnston, Valerie K. Wayda, Linda K. Bunker and John Eliot

Utilizing a two-stage random sampling technique, this study investigated the effect of three types of goal setting conditions (self-set, instructor-set, and “do your best” control) on tennis serving performance of college students (N = 156) in nine beginning tennis classes. A 3 × 2 × 5 (goal setting conditions × gender × trials) ANCOVA with repeated measures on the last factor and baseline performance as the covariate was computed. A significant interaction of goal setting conditions by trials was revealed (p < .003) with follow-up procedures favoring the instructor-set and self-set goal groups over the “do your best" group at the second and fourth trials. Further, at trial two, the instructor-set group was statistically superior to the self-set group. From this significant interaction, it appeared that the instructor-set and self-set goals enhanced students’ performance on the tennis serving task.