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Linda Lin, Richard P. Halgin, Arnold D. Well, and Ira Ockene

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Susan C. Hu, Nuan-Ching Huang, Ya-Tin Lin, Shiann-Far Kung, and Linda L. Lin


During the past decade many studies have endeavored to evaluate the relationships between environmental attributes and physical activity, but there is limited data on this subject in Taiwan. This is the first study to investigate both objective and subjective environments in relation to different levels of physical activity in adults in Tainan, Taiwan.


A 2-stage survey examining relationships between physical and social environments and physical activity was designed. It was administered to a sample including 231 community directors and 804 randomly selected residents. Community audits and telephone interviews were used as the objective and subjective measures in the study, respectively.


No correlation was found between the objective and the subjective measures of physical environments. Only the subjective measures were significantly related to city residents’ physical activities. Perceived physical facility was found to be correlated with engagement in physical activity, whereas organizational participation was associated with the regularity of physical activity. Of the 4 types of leisure activity examined in this study, dancing and aerobic activities are more likely to be engaged in regularly.


Factors associated with the regularity of physical activity are not the same as factors associated with engagement in physical activity.

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Patricia Marten DiBartolo, Linda Lin, Simone Montoya, Heather Neal, and Carey Shaffer

This study reports the psychometric development of a measure to assess individual differences in exercise motivations using a functionalist strategy (Snyder & Cantor, 1997). Factor analyses revealed two subscales for the newly developed Function of Exercise Scale (FES): Weight and Appearance (WA), and Health and Enjoyment (HE). FES-HE scores correlated with better psychological well-being and predicted prospectively monitored as well as concurrently and longitudinally assessed exercise behavior. FES-HE scores also correlated with lower pulse, systolic blood pressure, and salivary cortisol readings, indicating its association with better physical health. In contrast, FES-WA scores correlated with greater depressive and eating disorder symptoms, as well as lower self-esteem, and predicted the later emergence of eating disorder, but not depressive, symptoms. FES-WA scores failed to show a relationship with measures of physical well-being, including exercise engagement and vital sign data. Overall, the FES appears to hold promise as a succinct and psychometrically sound heuristic for meaningfully relating exercise motivations to important indices of both physical and psychological well-being.