This study investigated whether the teacher behavior of refinement would affect boys’ and girls’ achievement in the standing broad jump across grade levels kindergarten through 6th grade. The study took place in a public school rural setting using intact classes involving 529 students. A nonequivalent control-group design was used for the experiment. All subjects were pretested and posttested. A posttest took place immediately following the experiment and after a time span of 7 months. The posttest scores were analyzed using an analysis of covariance at each grade level. From the analysis of the data, it was concluded that the teacher behavior of refinement did have both immediate and long-term positive effects on student achievement in performing the standing broad jump.
Linda S. Masser
Two studies were done to determine the effectiveness of giving “critical cues” to first-grade subjects as they learned to perform handstands and forward rolls. Both studies took place in a public school setting using intact first-grade classes randomly assigned to different groups (handstands N = 69; forward rolls N = 44). All subjects were pretested, posttested immediately following treatment, and posttested again several months later. Pre- and posttest scores were analyzed using a factorial analysis with repeated measures. Results from the two studies would seem to support the learning theory that early stages of learning motor skills are dominated by cognitive concerns. Critical cues seemed to help young learners become cognitively aware and to then concentrate on the important biomechanical action they needed to practice to achieve significant, p<.05, long-term improvement in their handstands and their forward rolls.