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Leadership Characteristics as Significant Predictors of Clinical-Teaching Effectiveness

Linda S. Platt Meyer

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Dimensions of Power: A Question of Sport or Gender?

Annelies Knoppers, Barbara Bedker Meyer, Martha Ewing, and Linda Forrest

Organizational power can be defined as access to and ability to mobilize resources such as supplies, support, and information (Kanter, 1977). Differences in organizational power in athletic departments can be seen as a function of sport (whether one coaches a revenue or nonrevenue sport) or of gender. This study examined the extent to which sport or gender best explained differences in the degree of organizational power that Division I college coaches hold in athletic departments. The sample consisted of 947 coaches who responded to a questionnaire that included items dealing with their access to supplies, support, and information. The results indicated that the nature of the intersection of sport and gender varied across the three dimensions of power. Consistently, however, female coaches of nonrevenue sports were most limited in their access to critical resources while male coaches of revenue sports had the most power. This led to the conclusion that an analysis on the distribution of power should examine it in the context of both gender and sport.

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Gender and the Salaries of Coaches

Annelies Knoppers, Barbara Bedker Meyer, Martha Ewing, and Linda Forrest

This study examined salary differences between female and male Division I college coaches using three approaches. The human capital approach contends that salary differences are rooted in differences in qualifications. In contrast, a structural approach argues that gender differences in salary are associated with the gender ratio, the proportion of women to men in an occupation. The third approach, capitalist patriarchy, sees the gender wage gap as a function of the intersection of capitalism and patriarchy. We explored each of these approaches and found the greatest support for the latter. Coaches’ wages seemed to be determined for both women and men by both gender and type of sport. Additionally, gender ratio was positively related to the salaries for men only. We discuss the findings as well as their implications for the setting of first-year salaries and the ways in which salary differentiation can be an example of the manner in which gender relations are constructed in sport.

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Comparing National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II Athletes’ Perceptions of Social Support Following Injury, Illness, and Other Identified Stressors

Martha J. Anderson, Yvette Ingram, Linda Meyer, Thomas West, and Ellen West

Collegiate athletes have demonstrated a need for social support to help cope with their daily responsibilities. The purpose of this research was to explore National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II athletes’ perception of social support from friends, teammates, family, coaches, significant others, and athletic trainers following injury, illness, or other identified life stressors. There were 546 participants who completed a five-part survey using the University Stress Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Athletic Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Perceived Stress Scale, and a demographic section. Of the participants, 352 (64.5%) stated that they experienced moderate stress levels, and all participants indicated experiencing an identified life stressor within the last 12 months. The results indicated statistically significant differences when comparing providers of social support: females preferred the support of friends, significant others, and athletic trainers, and freshmen and sophomores perceived more social support from friends than did juniors and seniors.

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Gender Ratio and Social Interaction among College Coaches

Annelies Knoppers, Barbara Bedker Meyer, Martha E. Ewing, and Linda Forrest

Data from 947 Division I college coaches in the United States were used to examine three hypotheses concerning the impact of gender ratio on the frequency of social interaction between women and men coaches. These hypotheses were based on (a) the structural perspective characterized by the politics of optimism, (b) the institutional approach associated with the politics of pessimism, and (c) the common consciousness or subculture perspective represented by the politics of transcendence. Most support was shown for the politics of pessimism, which contends that an increase of women in a male-dominated occupation is associated with rising gender boundaries and sex segregation. Results are explored in the context of gendered homosociality.