A mixed methods design was applied to evaluate the application of the Perceived Locus of Causality scale (PLOC) to preadolescent samples in physical education settings. Subsequent to minor item adaptations to accommodate the assessment of younger samples, qualitative pilot tests were performed (N = 15). Children’s reports indicated the need for further revisions to the items, resulting in the Children’s PLOC (C-PLOC). In a second study involving a larger sample of 9–12 year old children (N = 429), the questionnaire was evaluated using quantitative methods. The five factor structure hypothesized based on self-determination theory was confirmed. Discriminant validity and reliability of the subscales was largely supported, but require confirmation in future research. Age was not found to be significantly related to children’s motivational styles. Taken together, initial results provide support for the suitability of the C-PLOC for the assessment of motivation in 9–12 year old children in physical education.
Linda Pannekoek, Jan P. Piek, and Martin S. Hagger
Linda Pannekoek, Daniela Rigoli, Jan P. Piek, Nicholas C. Barrett, and Marina Schoemaker
The parent-rated Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ) has been revised to incorporate a wider age range, including adolescence. In this exploratory study, internal consistency and validity of the DCDQ-2007 was assessed using a community-based sample of 87 adolescents. Psychometric properties of the DCDQ-2007 were investigated and concurrent validity, sensitivity, and specificity were assessed with the MABC-2 as a criterion standard. The results demonstrated high internal consistency for the DCDQ-2007 and a relationship with the MABC-2 was found. The DCDQ-2007 met the recommended standard for sensitivity, although the confidence interval was large; however, it failed to meet the recommended standard for specificity. This has important implications concerning the suitability of the DCDQ-2007. Although promising psychometric properties were found within the current study, the applicability of the DCDQ-2007 as a screening measure for motor difficulties requires careful consideration.