This field investigation assessed differences (e.g., drinking behavior, hydration status, perceptual ratings) between female and male endurance cyclists who completed a 164-km event in a hot environment (35 °C mean dry bulb) to inform rehydration recommendations for athletes. Three years of data were pooled to create 2 groups of cyclists: women (n = 15) and men (n = 88). Women were significantly smaller (p < .001) than men in height (166 ± 5 vs. 179 ± 7 cm), body mass (64.6 ± 7.3 vs. 86.4 ± 12.3 kg), and body mass index (BMI; 23.3 ± 1.8 vs. 26.9 ± 3.4) and had lower preevent urinary indices of hydration status, but were similar to men in age (43 ± 7 years vs. 44 ± 9 years) and exercise time (7.77 ± 1.24 hr vs. 7.23 ± 1.75 hr). During the 164-km ride, women lost less body mass (−0.7 ± 1.0 vs. −1.7 ± 1.5 kg; −1.1 ± 1.6% vs. −1.9 ± 1.8% of body weight; p < .005) and consumed less fluid than men (4.80 ± 1.28 L vs. 5.59 ± 2.13 L; p < .005). Women consumed a similar volume of fluid as men, relative to body mass (milliliters/kilogram). To control for performance and anthropomorphic characteristics, 15 women were pair-matched with 15 men on the basis of exercise time on the course and BMI; urine-specific gravity, urine color, and body mass change (kilograms and percentage) were different (p < .05) in 4 of 6 comparisons. No gender differences were observed for ratings of thirst, thermal sensation, or perceived exertion. In conclusion, differences in relative fluid volume consumed and hydration indices suggest that professional sports medicine organizations should consider gender and individualized drinking plans when formulating pronouncements regarding rehydration during exercise.
Lawrence E. Armstrong, Evan C. Johnson, Amy L. McKenzie, Lindsay A. Ellis and Keith H. Williamson
Lindsay A. Ellis, Brandon A. Yates, Amy L. McKenzie, Colleen X. Muñoz, Douglas J. Casa and Lawrence E. Armstrong
Urine color (Ucol) as a hydration assessment tool provides practicality, ease of use, and correlates moderately to strongly with urine specific gravity (Usg) and urine osmolality (Uosm). Indicative of daily fluid turnover, along with solute and urochrome excretion in 24-hr samples, Ucol may also reflect dietary composition. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of Ucol as a hydration status biomarker after nutritional supplementation with beetroot (880 mg), vitamin C (1000 mg), and riboflavin (200 mg). Twenty males (Mean ± SD; age, 21 ± 2 y; body mass, 82.12 ± 15.58 kg; height, 1.77 ± 0.06 m) consumed a standardized breakfast and collected all urine voids on one control day (CON) and 1 day after consuming a standardized breakfast and a randomized and double-blinded supplement (SUP) over 3 weeks. Participants replicated exercise and diet for one day before CON, and throughout CON and SUP. Ucol, Usg, Uosm, and urine volume were measured in all 24-hr samples, and Ucol and Usg were measured in all single samples. Ucol was a significant predictor of single sample Usg after all supplements (p < .05). Interestingly, 24-hr Ucol was not a significant predictor of 24-h Usg and Uosm after riboflavin supplementation (p = .20, p = .21). Further, there was a significant difference between CON and SUP 24-h Ucol only after riboflavin supplementation (p < .05). In conclusion, this investigation suggests that users of the UCC (urine color chart) should consider riboflavin supplementation when classifying hydration status and use a combination of urinary biomarkers (e.g., Usg and Ucol), both acutely and over 24 hr.